(Geneva Call) – From 16 to 19 December 2015, Geneva Call trained commanders from eight Free Syrian Army (FSA) brigades on humanitarian norms in Geneva. These brigades number an estimated 15,000 combatants and are active in northern Syria, including in Aleppo, Hama, Idlib and Latakia. Over three days, they participated in sessions on rules related to the conduct of hostilities, led by Geneva Call’s legal experts. These included the use of weapons, the protection of children, schools and hospitals, the prohibition of anti-personnel mines and a session dedicated to the protection of cultural heritage. The participants expressed their willingness to respect these rules and recognized the challenges that they face in complying with International Humanitarian Law (IHL), however, they also reported that many violations were being committed by the Syrian government, such as the use of human shields.