Central African Republic
The ex-Séléka coalition and associated armed groups, the anti-balaka local defense militias, and the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) are all listed in the Secretary-General’s (SG) 2019 annual report on children and armed conflict (CAC) for recruitment and use, killing and maiming, and sexual violence. The ex-Séléka coalition is also listed for attacks on schools and hospitals, and the LRA for abductions. Three armed groups part of the ex-Séléka coalition have signed action plans with the UN. Pursuant to SCR 2448 (2018), the Security Council is due to receive a report from the SG on the situation in CAR and the implementation of MINUSCA’s mandate. Despite the signing of a historic peace agreement between the Government of CAR and 14 armed groups in February 2019, which addresses all six grave violations against children, spikes of violence in areas of the country not previously affected by the conflict are creating new displacements and humanitarian needs. In the first half of September alone, violence in the northeastern town of Birao forcibly displaced approximately 13,000 civilians, mostly women and children. Sexual violence against children, especially girls, remains a major concern. In July, UNICEF documented 102 cases of gender-based violence against children (90 girls), including 55 cases of rape. Displaced children face heightened risk of sexual violence, especially girls collecting firewood and water, when most incidents reportedly take place. Conflict and insecurity continue to impact children’s access to education, with 191 schools reportedly closed in eastern CAR and 57,300 children unable to start classes in September. While 2019 has witnessed a decrease in the total number of attacks against aid workers as compared with 2018, OCHA has reported that the level and severity of the incidents has more than doubled: 28 humanitarians were wounded between January and August 2019, as compared to 13 in all of 2018. In July, there were 29 incidents affecting humanitarian workers, the highest monthly total since January.
The UN Security Council should:
- Insist that all signatories to the peace deal comply with their obligations under international humanitarian law (IHL) and commit to the full implementation of the February agreement;
- Urge the Mouvement Patriotique pour la Centrafrique (MPC), the Front Populaire pour la Renaissance de la Centrafrique (FPRC), and l’Unité pour la paix en Centrafrique (UPC) to fully and swiftly implement their respective action plans to end and prevent grave violations and release all children still in their ranks; further call upon all other listed parties to develop and sign action plans;
- Urge the Government of CAR to accelerate institutional reforms for the reconstruction of the rule of law, in particular the protection of children, by promptly criminalizing grave violations against children in armed conflict and adopting the Child Protection Code, in line with the recommendations of the SG (A/73/907–S/2019/509) and the Independent Expert on human rights in CAR (A/HRC/42/61).
France is the lead country on CAR, and Côte d’Ivoire chairs the 2127 Sanctions Committee.
This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – October 2019.
Year listed: 2007
Action Plans signed: CPJP – recruitment and use of children (November 2011); APRD – recruitment and use of children (October 2011); UFDR – recruitment and use of children (June 2007)
Sanctions Committee: The Central African Republic Sanctions Committee
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in CAR: 2016; 2011; 2009
Security Council Working Group conclusions on CAR: 2016; 2011; 2009
UN Mission: MINUSCA
Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict
|Armee populaire pour la restauration de la Republique et de la democratie (APRD)~||a, c||a||a||a||a|
|Forces democratiques pour la reassemlement (UFDR)/Union des forces democratiques pour le rassemblement (UFDR)~||a, b, d||a,c||a||a||a||a||a,b,c,d|
|Forces democratiques populaire de Centrafrique (FDPC)*||a, c||a||a||a||a||a||a,b,c,d|
|Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)*||a,c,e||a,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c,e||a,b,c,e|
|Movement des liberateurs centrafricains pour la justice (MLCJ)||a||a||a||a||a|
|Self-defence militias supported by the Government of Central African Republic||a||a||a||a|
|Convention des patriotes pour la justice et la paix (CPJP)~||a||a||a||a||a,b,c,d|
|Convention des patriotes pour la justice et la paix fondamentale (CPJP fondamentale)||a||a,b,c,d|
|Convention patriotique pour le salut du Kodro (CPSK)||a|
|Union des forces republicaines (UFR)||a|
|Local defense militias known as the anti-balaka||a,b||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c|
|Former Séléka coalition and associated armed groups||a,b,c,d||a,b,c,d||a,b,c,d||a,b,c,d|
a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children
d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children
~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.