Central African Republic
Local militias known as anti-balaka, the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), and the Front populaire pour la renaissance de la Centrafrique (FPRC), Mouvement patriotique pour la Centrafrique (MPC), and Union pour la paix en Centrafrique (UPC) as part of the former Séléka coalition, are all listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s (SG) 2022 annual report (S/2022/493) on children and armed conflict (CAAC) for various grave violations against children. In June, the SG is expected to report on the situation in CAR and MINUSCA, pursuant to SCR 2659 (2022). According to the SG’s February report on MINUSCA (S/2023/108), the Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting (CTFMR) verified 97 grave violations against children between October 2022 and January 2023. The LRA was found responsible for 53 percent of these violations, including the abduction, recruitment, and use of 20 children. Children accounted for half of all civilian casualties caused by explosive remnants of war (ERW) in 2022, compared to just six percent in 2021. The Security Council should:
- Call on all parties to uphold their obligations under international humanitarian law (IHL) and human rights law (IHRL), and to end and prevent grave violations against children, including by engaging with the UN to sign and implement action plans to end and prevent all six grave violations against children; urge the MPC, FPRC, and UPC to fully and swiftly implement their respective action plans and release all children still in their ranks;
- Call on the Government to fully implement all aspects of the Child Protection Code and to ensure perpetrators of grave violations are held accountable and that child survivors of sexual violence have access to comprehensive, gender-sensitive, and age-appropriate response systems and services, and to strengthen preventive measures; encourage the Government to appoint child protection focal points in the armed forces and establish effective measures in cooperation with the UN to end and prevent grave violations by National Defense Forces and other security personnel;
- Urge the adoption and implementation of a handover protocol to facilitate the release of children to civilian child protection actors, prioritizing their reintegration in line with the Paris Principles and Commitments, which the Government has endorsed;
- Call on all parties to swiftly and fully implement the recommendations of the Security Council Working Group on CAAC (SCWG-CAAC), as elaborated in its fifth conclusions on CAR.
France is the lead country on CAR.
This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – June 2023.
Year listed: 2007
Action Plans signed: UFDR – recruitment and use of children (June 2007); Mouvement Patriotique pour la Centrafrique – recruitment and use, killing and maiming, rape and other forms of sexual violence, and attacks on schools and hospitals (June 2018); Front Populaire pour la Renaissance de la Centrafrique – recruitment and use of children, killing and maiming, rape and other forms of sexual violence, and attacks on schools and hospitals (July 2019); l’Unité pour la paix en Centrafrique – recruitment and use of children, killing and maiming, rape and other forms of sexual violence, and attacks on schools and hospitals (August 2019)
Previous Action Plans: APRD – recruitment and use of children (October 2011) *Party ceased to exist; CPJP – recruitment and use of children (November 2011) *Party ceased to exist
Sanctions Committee: The Central African Republic Sanctions Committee (Current Chair: Niger)
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in CAR: 2021; 2019; 2016; 2011; 2009
Security Council Working Group conclusions on CAR: 2020; 2016; 2011; 2009
UN Mission: MINUSCA
Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict
|Armee populaire pour la restauration de la Republique et de la democratie (APRD)~||a, c||a||a||a||a|
|Forces democratiques pour la reassemlement (UFDR)/Union des forces democratiques pour le rassemblement (UFDR)~||a, b, d||a,c||a||a||a||a||a,b,c,d|
|Forces democratiques populaire de Centrafrique (FDPC)*||a, c||a||a||a||a||a||a,b,c,d|
|Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)*||a,c,e||a,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c,e||a,b,c,e|
|Movement des liberateurs centrafricains pour la justice (MLCJ)||a||a||a||a||a|
|Self-defence militias supported by the Government of Central African Republic||a||a||a||a|
|Convention des patriotes pour la justice et la paix (CPJP)~||a||a||a||a||a,b,c,d|
|Convention des patriotes pour la justice et la paix fondamentale (CPJP fondamentale)||a||a,b,c,d|
|Convention patriotique pour le salut du Kodro (CPSK)||a|
|Union des forces republicaines (UFR)||a|
|Local defense militias known as the anti-balaka||a,b||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c|
|Former Séléka coalition and associated armed groups||a,b,c,d||a,b,c,d||a,b,c,d||a,b,c,d|
a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children
d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children
~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.