Four parties to conflict are listed in the annexes of the SG’s 2023 annual report on CAAC for recruiting and using children. Of these, the Houthis (who call themselves Ansar Allah) are also listed for killing and maiming children and attacks on schools and hospitals. The Security Council receives a monthly briefing on Yemen. In October, the Special Representative of the SG for CAAC concluded a visit to Yemen, where she called for enhanced protections for children affected by armed conflict, including through the continued implementation of action plans, and for child protection to be included in peace negotiations. Following attacks by the Houthis on commercial and merchant vessels in the Red Sea, the United States and United Kingdom, with the support of other States, carried out a series of military strikes on targets in Yemen. A group of 26 aid organizations operating in Yemen have expressed grave concern at the humanitarian impacts of this escalation, including on the ability to deliver humanitarian aid to the 21 million people, including 11 million children, in need of humanitarian assistance and protection. The statement urged “all actors to prioritize diplomatic channels over military options to de-escalate the crisis and safeguard the progress of peace efforts in Yemen,” as well as reiterating the need to protect civilians and civilian infrastructure and to guarantee safe, unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance. The statement also reiterated the call for an “immediate and sustained ceasefire in Gaza to save lives and avert further instability across the region.” The Houthis have since ordered US and UK nationals working for the UN and its humanitarian organizations to leave Yemen within a month. The SG has also warned against further escalation. The Security Council should:

  • Call for the protection of civilians, especially children, and civilian infrastructure, and for immediate, safe, and unimpeded delivery of humanitarian aid to children and other civilians in need, in accordance with IHL;
  • Reiterate support for continued dialogue towards a comprehensive and inclusive peace process that includes meaningful child participation and protection measures, pursuant to SCR 2427 (2018) and drawing on the Practical Guidance for Mediators;
  • Call on all parties to fully and swiftly implement their respective action plans and other concrete commitments to end and prevent grave violations against children, including the Government of Yemen’s 2014 action plan to end and prevent recruitment and use and the 2018 roadmap, the Security Belt Forces’ commitment to and participation in activities under the Government’s 2018 roadmap, the Coalition’s 2019 memorandum of understanding and related program of activities, and the Houthi’s 2022 action plan action plan and handover protocol;
  • Call on all parties to swiftly and fully implement the recommendations of the SCWG-CAAC, as elaborated in its third conclusions on Yemen; support efforts to ensure sustainable financial resources for child protection activities and programs in Yemen, including for the implementation of warring parties’ commitments and of the SCWG-CAAC conclusions and for explosive ordnance removal and risk education.


This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – February 2024.


UN Action

Year listed: 2011
Action Plans signed: Yemen Armed Forces – recruitment and use of children (May 2014)
Sanctions Committee: 2140 Sanctions Committee (Current Chair: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Yemen: 20212019; 2013
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Yemen: 2020; 2013

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Al-Houthi/Ansar Allah* a a a a a,b,d a,b,d
Pro-Government militias, including the Salafists and Popular Committees* a a a a a a a
Breakaway First Armoured Division (FAD) a
Yemeni armed forces (YAF)~ a a a a
Al-Qaida in the Arab Peninsula (AQIP) a a a a
Ansar al-Sharia* a a a a a
Government forces, including the Yemeni Armed Forces, the First Armoured Division, the Military Police, the special security forces and Republican Guards ~ * a a a a a
Coalition to restore legitimacy in Yemen led by Saudi Arabia** b,d

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.
**First listed as the Saudi Arabia-led coalition for killing and maiming and attacks on schools and hospitals in the 2016 report but removed on 24 June 2016 per addendum A/70/836/ADD.1-S/2016/360/ADD.1