Somali National Army (SNA) and Al-Shabaab are both listed for recruitment and use and killing and maiming of children. Al-Shabaab is additionally listed for rape and sexual violence, attacks on schools and hospitals, and abduction of children. Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama’a (ASWJ) is listed for recruitment and use. In 2012, the Federal Government signed two action plans, one to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children and one to end killing and maiming. In August, the Secretary-General (SG) is expected to report to the Council on UNSOM’s progress, pursuant to Resolution 2408 (2018). In his recent annual report on children and armed conflict (S/2018/465), covering violations in 2017, the SG reported that abductions in Somalia nearly doubled (1,634 cases) compared to 2016, while recruitment and use also significantly increased. The majority of cases are attributable to Al-Shabaab. The SG also expressed concern over the detention of 217 children for their alleged association with Al-Shabaab. The Security Council should:

  • Urge authorities throughout Somalia to cease the detention of children for their alleged association with armed groups, and to that end, urge the Government to comply with its standard operating procedures for the reception and handover of children separated from armed groups, ensuring that captured children are handed over to relevant child protection actors within 72 hours, and that their rehabilitation and reintegration is prioritized; furthermore, allow UN human rights and other relevant civilian monitors full access to detention facilities;
  • Echoing the SG (S/2018/465, para 152), call upon the President of Puntland to pardon children accused of association with Al-Shabaab and deprived of their liberty as a result, specifically those who remain in a UNICEF-supported reintegration center in Garowe, Puntland, and release them to relevant child protection actors; and furthermore, to harmonize local legislation with federal laws and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN CRC);
  • Welcoming the African Union and UN’s continued commitment to mentor and assist Somali security forces to address all human rights violations, including the prevention of conflict-related sexual violence, request the SG, in his regular updates on the status of the Somali security forces’ readiness to perform security tasks, to report on measures taken to address and prevent grave violations against children, including sexual violence, by national forces;
  • Call for the swift implementation of the Government’s action plans to end and prevent grave violations, with support of the UN Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting (CTFMR).

The United Kingdom is the lead country on Somalia. Kazakhstan chairs the 751/1907 Somalia/Eritrea committee.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update: August 2018.

UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: Somali National Army – recruitment and use of children (July 2012)
Sanctions Committee: The Sanctions Committee on Somalia
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Somalia: 2016201020082007
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Somalia2017201120082007

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Transitional National Government a
Juba Valley Alliance a a
Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA) a a, b
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA/SNSC) of Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade a
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA)-faction of Muse Sudi Yalahow) a
Middle Shabelle Administration a, b
Puntland Administration a, b
Somali Patriotic Movement/Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a, b
United Somali Congress (USC) of Mohamed Kanyare Afrah a, c
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA) of Omar a, c
Lower Shabelle Administration a
Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter Terrorism (ARPCT) a, b, d
Union of the Islamic Courts (ICU) a, b
Remnants of the former Union of the Islamic Courts (UIC) a, b a, b, d
Transitional Federal Government (TFG) a, b, c, d, f a, b, d a, b a, b a, b
Al-Shabaab* a, b, d a, b a, b a, b a, b a,b a,b a,b,e a,b,e
Hizbul Islam a a, b
Somali National Army (SNA) (Formerly listed as Somali National Armed Forces)~* a, b a,b a,b a,b a,b
Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama’a (ASWJ) a a a,b a

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.