Somali National Army (SNA) and Al-Shabaab are both listed for the recruitment and use and killing and maiming of children. Al-Shabaab is additionally listed for abduction of children. Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah (ASWJ) is also listed for recruitment and use. In 2012, the Federal Government signed two action plans with the UN, one to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children by the SNA, and one to end killing and maiming. In December, Council Members will receive a report from the SG on UNSOM’s progress, pursuant to SCR 2358 (2017). In his latest report (S/2017/751 para. 54) from September 2017, the SG mentioned the case of 40 children captured in Puntland who are in a rehabilitation center, but whose sentences have not been rescinded. The SG noted (para. 55) the CTFMR verified 245 incidents of grave violations affecting 485 children, the majority of which related to forced recruitment and use by Al-Shabaab. Finally, the SG reported that in June, over ninety violent incidents affected humanitarian personnel, facilities and assets, with four humanitarian workers killed, nine injured, six arrested or placed in temporary detention, and thirteen abducted (para. 78). Council Members should:

  • Call upon the Government to swiftly and fully implement its two action plans signed in 2012, including the criminalization of the recruitment and use of children; issuance of command orders prohibiting and sanctioning the recruitment and use of children and other violations and abuses against children; establishment of age assessment mechanisms in its recruitment process; and continued screening of troops;
  • Urge authorities to revoke the prison sentences of the 40 children captured in Puntland, in compliance with international law, and call upon the Government to allow access for verification of their conditions while at the rehabilitation center in Garoowe;
  • Echoing the SG’s calls (S/2017/751 para. 71), encourage the Government to prioritize measures to protect children from recruitment in the operationalization of their national strategy and action plan for preventing and countering violent extremism, endorsed in the London Conference in May 2017, which give attention to reintegration and rehabilitation;
  • Urge all parties to facilitate rapid and unimpeded humanitarian access to all civilians in need, including children, especially in Diinsoor, Wajid and Xuddur in the Gedo and Bakool regions, in compliance with international humanitarian law.

The United Kingdom is the lead country on Somalia. Kazakhstan chairs the 751/1907 Somalia/Eritrea committee.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update: December 2017.

UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: Somali National Army – recruitment and use of children (July 2012)
Sanctions Committee: The Sanctions Committee on Somalia
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Somalia: 2016201020082007
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Somalia2017201120082007

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Transitional National Government a
Juba Valley Alliance a a
Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA) a a, b
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA/SNSC) of Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade a
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA)-faction of Muse Sudi Yalahow) a
Middle Shabelle Administration a, b
Puntland Administration a, b
Somali Patriotic Movement/Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a, b
United Somali Congress (USC) of Mohamed Kanyare Afrah a, c
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA) of Omar a, c
Lower Shabelle Administration a
Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter Terrorism (ARPCT) a, b, d
Union of the Islamic Courts (ICU) a, b
Remnants of the former Union of the Islamic Courts (UIC) a, b a, b, d
Transitional Federal Government (TFG) a, b, c, d, f a, b, d a, b a, b a, b
Al-Shabaab* a, b, d a, b a, b a, b a, b a,b a,b a,b,e a,b,e
Hizbul Islam a a, b
Somali National Army (SNA) (Formerly listed as Somali National Armed Forces)~* a, b a,b a,b a,b a,b
Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama’a (ASWJ) a a a,b a

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.