Three parties to conflict are listed for grave violations in the annexes of Secretary-General’s (SG) 2019 annual report on children and armed conflict (CAAC), including Al-Shabaab which is listed for all five ‘trigger’ violations. In February, the SG will report on the implementation of Resolutions 2461 (2019) and 2472 (2019). UNSOM’s mandate is set to expire in March 2020, pursuant to SCR 2461 (2019). The SG’s most recent report (S/2019/884) documented 521 grave violations against children between August 5 and November 4, 2019. The Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict (SRSG-CAAC) visited Somalia in October and witnessed the signature by the Minister of Defense of a Roadmap to accelerate the implementation of the 2012 action plans to end and prevent violations for which the Somali National Army is listed. On December 28, 2019, a bombing in Mogadishu – for which Al-Shabaab has claimed credit – left almost 90 killed and 140 injured, including children and university students. The Security Council should:

  • Condemn all grave violations committed against children, in particular, the continued high numbers of child recruitment and use, abductions, and sexual violence;
  • Demand that all parties to conflict uphold their obligations under international humanitarian law (IHL) and human rights law, and take all possible measures to protect children and other civilians;
  • Call on the Government to swiftly implement the Roadmap to accelerate implementation of its 2012 action plans to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children and the killing and maiming of children;
  • Urge the Government to ensure that armed groups or militia integrating into its security forces are screened, especially Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama’a (ASWJ), and any potentially associated children are identified, released, and reintegrated in line with international standards and ensuring the best interest of the child;
  • Urge the Government to end the detention of children for real or alleged association with Al-Shabaab in line with the 2014 Standard Operating Procedure on the handover of children to child protection actors and its commitments to the Paris Principles.



This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – February 2020.

UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: Somali National Army – recruitment and use of children (July 2012)
Sanctions Committee: The Sanctions Committee on Somalia
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Somalia: 2016201020082007
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Somalia2017201120082007

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Transitional National Government a
Juba Valley Alliance a a
Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA) a a, b
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA/SNSC) of Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade a
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA)-faction of Muse Sudi Yalahow) a
Middle Shabelle Administration a, b
Puntland Administration a, b
Somali Patriotic Movement/Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a, b
United Somali Congress (USC) of Mohamed Kanyare Afrah a, c
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA) of Omar a, c
Lower Shabelle Administration a
Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter Terrorism (ARPCT) a, b, d
Union of the Islamic Courts (ICU) a, b
Remnants of the former Union of the Islamic Courts (UIC) a, b a, b, d
Transitional Federal Government (TFG) a, b, c, d, f a, b, d a, b a, b a, b
Al-Shabaab* a, b, d a, b a, b a, b a, b a,b a,b a,b,e a,b,e
Hizbul Islam a a, b
Somali National Army (SNA) (Formerly listed as Somali National Armed Forces)~* a, b a,b a,b a,b a,b
Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama’a (ASWJ) a a a,b a

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.