Al-Shabaab is listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s (SG) latest annual report on children and armed conflict (CAAC) for all five ‘trigger’ violations, and Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama’a (ASWJ) is listed for recruitment and use. The Somali Federal Defence and Police Forces are listed for recruitment and use, killing and maiming, and rape and other forms of sexual violence. In May, UNSOM’s mandate is up for renewal, per SCR 2592 (2021). According to the SG’s February report (S/2022/101), between November 2021 and January 2022, the Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting (CTFMR) verified the recruitment and use of 289 children, killing and maiming of 182 children, abduction of 220 children, and incidents of sexual violence against 68 children. The Security Council should:

  • Renew UNSOM’s child protection mandate, and ensure sufficient resources are allocated and swiftly deployed to allow UNSOM to fully deliver on this mandate;
  • Call on the Federal Government of Somalia to strengthen accountability for all grave violations committed against children, to treat children formerly or allegedly associated with armed forces or groups primarily as victims, in line with the Paris Principles, and to consistently apply the 2014 Standard Operating Procedures for the reception and handover of children separated from armed groups to civilian child protection actors;
  • Encourage the Federal Government to strengthen its legal framework for the protection of children and to implement its commitments under the Safe Schools Declaration;
  • Urge the Federal Government to fully implement its 2012 action plans on recruitment and use and killing and maiming, as well as its 2019 roadmap, and to swiftly engage with the UN to strengthen its commitments to end and prevent rape and other forms of sexual violence against children.

The United Kingdom is the lead country on Somalia.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – May 2022.

UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: Somali National Army – recruitment and use of children (July 2012) and killing and maiming of children (August 2012); Roadmap to expedite the implementation of the two action plans adopted in October 2019
Sanctions Committee: Somalia Sanctions Committee (Current Chair: Belgium)
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Somalia: 2020; 2016201020082007
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Somalia: 2020; 2017201120082007

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Transitional National Government a
Juba Valley Alliance a a
Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA) a a, b
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA/SNSC) of Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade a
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA)-faction of Muse Sudi Yalahow) a
Middle Shabelle Administration a, b
Puntland Administration a, b
Somali Patriotic Movement/Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a, b
United Somali Congress (USC) of Mohamed Kanyare Afrah a, c
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA) of Omar a, c
Lower Shabelle Administration a
Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter Terrorism (ARPCT) a, b, d
Union of the Islamic Courts (ICU) a, b
Remnants of the former Union of the Islamic Courts (UIC) a, b a, b, d
Transitional Federal Government (TFG) a, b, c, d, f a, b, d a, b a, b a, b
Al-Shabaab* a, b, d a, b a, b a, b a, b a,b a,b a,b,e a,b,e
Hizbul Islam a a, b
Somali National Army (SNA) (Formerly listed as Somali National Armed Forces)~* a, b a,b a,b a,b a,b
Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama’a (ASWJ) a a a,b a

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.