Somali National Army (SNA) and Al-Shabaab are both listed for the recruitment and use and killing and maiming of children. Al-Shabaab is additionally listed for abduction of children. Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah (ASWJ) is also listed for recruitment and use. In 2012, the Federal Government signed two action plans, one to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children by the SNA, and one to end killing and maiming. In March, the SG will report to the Council on UNSOM’s progress and the Council is expected to renew its mandate pursuant to SCR 2358 (2017). In his last report (S/2017/1109, paras. 61-63), covering September to December 2017, the SG reported a sharp increase in the recruitment of children, 70 percent attributable to Al-Shabaab. Human Rights Watch reported that Somali authorities have detained hundreds of boys for their alleged association with Al-Shabaab since 2015. The Security Council should:

  • Maintain child protection as one of UNSOM’s key priorities in the mandate renewal, ensuring dedicated and sufficient resources exist to carry out this mandate; ensure CPAs are able to follow up with the Government on implementation of its two action plans among other core tasks;
  • Call upon the President of Puntland to grant presidential pardon to children who remain in a UNICEF-supported reintegration center in Garowe, Puntland;
  • Call upon the Government to comply with its standard operating procedures for the reception and handover of children separated from armed groups, ensuring that captured children are handed over to relevant child protection actors within 72 hours, and whose rehabilitation and reintegration should be prioritized; furthermore, allow relevant civilian actors full access to detention facilities where children are held.

The United Kingdom is the lead country on Somalia. Kazakhstan chairs the 751/1907 Somalia/Eritrea committee.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update: March 2018.

UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: Somali National Army – recruitment and use of children (July 2012)
Sanctions Committee: The Sanctions Committee on Somalia
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Somalia: 2016201020082007
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Somalia2017201120082007

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Transitional National Government a
Juba Valley Alliance a a
Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA) a a, b
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA/SNSC) of Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade a
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA)-faction of Muse Sudi Yalahow) a
Middle Shabelle Administration a, b
Puntland Administration a, b
Somali Patriotic Movement/Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a, b
United Somali Congress (USC) of Mohamed Kanyare Afrah a, c
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA) of Omar a, c
Lower Shabelle Administration a
Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter Terrorism (ARPCT) a, b, d
Union of the Islamic Courts (ICU) a, b
Remnants of the former Union of the Islamic Courts (UIC) a, b a, b, d
Transitional Federal Government (TFG) a, b, c, d, f a, b, d a, b a, b a, b
Al-Shabaab* a, b, d a, b a, b a, b a, b a,b a,b a,b,e a,b,e
Hizbul Islam a a, b
Somali National Army (SNA) (Formerly listed as Somali National Armed Forces)~* a, b a,b a,b a,b a,b
Ahl al-Sunna wal-Jama’a (ASWJ) a a a,b a

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.