D. R. Congo


Fifteen armed groups are listed for grave violations against children, and the Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC) are listed for sexual violence. The MONUSCO mandate is due for renewal by March 31, 2019. According to the Secretary-General’s (SG’s) last report on MONUSCO, between October 2 and December 31, 2018, the UN verified 165 grave violations against children, including sexual violence in North and South Kivu by the FARDC, Mai-Mai Mazembe, and unidentified armed elements. The SG reports that 156 children (10 girls, 146 boys) escaped or were separated from armed groups in this period, mainly in North Kivu and Kasai provinces, from the Mai-Mai Mazembe, Nyatura, and Kamuina Nsapu (S/2019/6, para. 51). MONUSCO made progress in engaging with armed groups, resulting in the release of more than 440 girls and boys. Urgent protection threats remain, however, including targeted killings, abductions, forced recruitment of children and adults, and large-scale, recurrent displacements. In North Kivu, Ebola has killed 264 children under 18 since the start of the outbreak in August, with the WHO confirming a total of 894 cases and 561 deaths as of March 2. The Ebola response faces significant challenges, resulting from insecurity in the region, including multiple attacks on treatment centers, and the movement of displaced civilians.

The Security Council should:

  • Renew MONUSCO’s child protection mandate, ensuring full capacity in the Child Protection Unit, and that Child Protection Advisors (CPAs) continue to have direct access to senior mission leadership and the political and operational space to engage with all parties to conflict; in subsequent budget negotiations, ensure distinct budget lines for child protection in order to allow MONUSCO to effectively deliver on its CAAC mandate;
  • Call on all parties to facilitate the safe delivery of humanitarian assistance, including by removing administrative impediments, and cease attacks on aid workers; and to ensure access for health workers to Ebola-affected areas, including along the South Sudan border;
  • Urge the Government to sustain the gains of its completed action plan on recruitment and use, including through ongoing training of national security forces, and to implement fully and without delay its action plan to end and prevent sexual violence against children by the FARDC and other security forces; furthermore support the Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting’s (CTFMR’s) engagement with non-State armed groups, including to negotiate action plans;
  • Express concern about detention and deprivation of liberty, including inhumane treatment and torture, of children for their alleged association with armed groups; and urge the Government to comply with applicable obligations under international law.

France is the lead country on the DRC. Kuwait chairs the 1533 DRC Sanctions Committee.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – March 2019.


In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Watchlist has provided support via its Partnerships Program in order to strengthen local efforts to monitor, report on, and respond to grave violations against children. This support has included timely outreach and trainings for local civil society actors in Eastern DRC. Watchlist currently provides technical support, including mentoring, to one local organization in the DRC. Working through community-based protection committees, Watchlist’s partner monitors and documents child rights violations. They also engage with local authorities to improve access to referral services and to prevent violations.


UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: FARDC (the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) – recruitment and use of children and sexual violence against children (October 2012)
Sanctions Committee: Sanctions Committee concerning Democratic Republic of Congo
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in DRC: 2018; 20142010; 2008; 2007; 2006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on DRC: 201820142011200920072006

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo a
Forces armees congolaises (FAC) a
Forces armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo (FARDC)~* a a,b,c,e a,b,c,e a,c,d,f a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c c
Mouvement national de liberation du Congo (MLC) a a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Goma a a
Local defence forces associated with RCD-Goma a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-National a a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Kisangani/ML a a
Union des patriotes congolais (UPC) (Hema militia) a a
Union des patriotes congolais (UPC)-Thomas Lubanga and Florimert Kisembo factions a
Parti pour l’unite et la sauvenarge du Congo (PUSIC) (Hema Militias) a a
Masunzu’s forces a a
Lendu militias a
Front nationaliste et integrationaliste (FNI) (Lendu) a a,b a a,e a a,c a,c
Front populaire pour la reconciliation de l’Ituri (FPRI) (Ngiti) a
Ex-FAR/Interahamwe a a
Mai-Mai a a
Mai-Mai in the Kivus, Maniema and Katanga a,b
Mai-Mai groups in North and South Kivu, Maniema and Katanga who have not integrated into FARDC a a,e
Union des patriotes congolais pour la paix (also known as Mai-Mai Lafontaine)* a,d,f a,c a,c a,c a a a a a
Alliance des patriotes pour un Congo libre et souverain* a a a a a
Mai-Mai Simba* c a,c a,c a,c a,c
Mai Mai “Tawimbi” a
Forces armes populaires congolaises (FAPC) a a,b
Mudundu-40 a a
Laurent Nkunda and Jules Mutebutsi, dissident elements of FARDC a,c
Non-integrated FARDC elements loyal to rebel leader Laurent Nkunda a,e a,b,c,e
Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR)* a,b,c a,e a,b,c,e a a,c a,c a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d,e
Force de résistance patriotique de l’Ituri (FRPI)*/Front Populaire pour la Justice au Congo (FPJC) a,e a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d,e
Mouvement revolutionnaire congolais (MRC) a,e
Congres national pour la defense du peuple (CNDP), formerly led by Laurent Nkunda and now Bosco Ntaganda a,b,d a,c a,c a,c
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)* a,b,c,e a,c a,c a,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c,e a,b,c,e
Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23) a,c a,c
Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) a,d a,b,d a,b,d a,b,d,e
Mai-Mai Kata Katanga a a a a
Nduma défense du Congo-Rénové/Mai-Mai Cheka a,b a,b a,b a,b
Nyatura a a a a
Raia Mutomboki a,c a,c
Mai-Mai Mazembe a,b

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.