D. R. Congo

Advocacy

Thirteen parties are listed, including the Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC). The FARDC were delisted from the annexes of the Secretary-General’s (SG) 2017 annual report on children and armed conflict (CAC) (A/72/361–S/2017/821) for recruitment and use, but remain listed for rape and other forms of sexual violence, pending full implementation of the Government’s action plan. In March, the Council will receive the SG’s progress report on MONUSCO and is expected to renew its mandate ending on March 31 pursuant to SCR 2348 (2017). In his latest report (S/2018/16 paras. 34-36), covering the last quarter of 2017, the SG reported 66 cases of conflict-related sexual violence against children, with FARDC as one of the main perpetrators. Disconcertingly, the SG also reported that State agents were responsible for more than half of the 40 children killed and 57 maimed in the provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu, Ituri, Kasai Central, and Kasai. The Council should:

  • In renewal of its mandate, maintain MONUSCO’s specialized, standalone capacity to document, verify, and report grave violations against children by allocating sufficient budgetary resources and staff to the Child Protection Unit; to this end, specifically ensure that Child Protection Advisers (CPAs) continue to have direct access to senior mission leadership, have political and operational space to engage with parties to conflict, and lead the Mission’s work on the UN-led Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM); the Mission should retain distinct budget lines for child protection;
  • Urge the Government to sustain the gains of the action plan on recruitment and use and to fully and without delay implement its action plan to end and prevent sexual violence against children by members of the FARDC, and encourage MONUSCO to continue supporting the Government in these efforts;
  • Given that 94 percent of the grave violations were committed by armed groups in 2017, urge MONUSCO to continue dialogue with all listed parties to obtain further commitments and work towards the development and implementation of action plans to prevent and end violations;
  • Urge the Government to immediately stop all violations and abuses of children’s rights by State security forces, and to bring all perpetrators to justice regardless of their affiliation or rank, in echo of the SG’s calls.

France is the lead country on the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kuwait chairs the 1533 Sanctions Committee.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update: March 2018.

Partnerships

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Watchlist’s Partnerships Program supports one local civil society organization to strengthen its capacity to monitor, report, and respond to grave violations against children. Local partners play an instrumental role in mobilizing and training community-based protection structures to alert in case of grave violations. They also engage with local authorities to improve access to referral services and to prevent violations.

Publications

UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: FARDC (the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) – recruitment and use of children and sexual violence against children (October 2012)
Sanctions Committee: Sanctions Committee concerning Democratic Republic of Congo
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in DRC: 20142010; 2008; 2007; 2006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on DRC: 20142011200920072006
UN Mission: MONUSCO

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo a
Forces armees congolaises (FAC) a
Forces armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo (FARDC)~* a a,b,c,e a,b,c,e a,c,d,f a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c c
Mouvement national de liberation du Congo (MLC) a a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Goma a a
Local defence forces associated with RCD-Goma a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-National a a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Kisangani/ML a a
Union des patriotes congolais (UPC) (Hema militia) a a
Union des patriotes congolais (UPC)-Thomas Lubanga and Florimert Kisembo factions a
Parti pour l’unite et la sauvenarge du Congo (PUSIC) (Hema Militias) a a
Masunzu’s forces a a
Lendu militias a
Front nationaliste et integrationaliste (FNI) (Lendu) a a,b a a,e a a,c a,c
Front populaire pour la reconciliation de l’Ituri (FPRI) (Ngiti) a
Ex-FAR/Interahamwe a a
Mai-Mai a a
Mai-Mai in the Kivus, Maniema and Katanga a,b
Mai-Mai groups in North and South Kivu, Maniema and Katanga who have not integrated into FARDC a a,e
Union des patriotes congolais pour la paix (also known as Mai-Mai Lafontaine)* a,d,f a,c a,c a,c a a a a a
Alliance des patriotes pour un Congo libre et souverain* a a a a a
Mai-Mai Simba* c a,c a,c a,c a,c
Mai Mai “Tawimbi” a
Forces armes populaires congolaises (FAPC) a a,b
Mudundu-40 a a
Laurent Nkunda and Jules Mutebutsi, dissident elements of FARDC a,c
Non-integrated FARDC elements loyal to rebel leader Laurent Nkunda a,e a,b,c,e
Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR)* a,b,c a,e a,b,c,e a a,c a,c a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d,e
Force de résistance patriotique de l’Ituri (FRPI)*/Front Populaire pour la Justice au Congo (FPJC) a,e a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d,e
Mouvement revolutionnaire congolais (MRC) a,e
Congres national pour la defense du peuple (CNDP), formerly led by Laurent Nkunda and now Bosco Ntaganda a,b,d a,c a,c a,c
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)* a,b,c,e a,c a,c a,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c,e a,b,c,e
Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23) a,c a,c
Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) a,d a,b,d a,b,d a,b,d,e
Mai-Mai Kata Katanga a a a a
Nduma défense du Congo-Rénové/Mai-Mai Cheka a,b a,b a,b a,b
Nyatura a a a a
Raia Mutomboki a,c a,c
Mai-Mai Mazembe a,b

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.

News

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