D. R. Congo
Thirteen parties are listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s (SG) 2021 annual report (S/2021/437) on children and armed conflict (CAAC) for grave violations against children, including the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC) for rape and other forms of sexual violence. In December, MONUSCO’s mandate is up for renewal, pursuant to SCR 2556 (2020). According to the SG’s September periodic report (S/2021/807), the Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting (CTFMR) verified 462 grave violations against children between June and August, including 45 child casualties (17 girls, 28 boys). During the reporting period, 39 children were newly recruited, while 127 children were voluntarily released from armed groups pursuant to roadmaps to end and prevent grave violations. Additionally, Mai-Mai Mutetezi’s commander signed a unilateral declaration and roadmap to end and prevent child recruitment and other grave violations. Finally, the UN documented 98 cases (97 girls, one boy) of sexual violence against children. In November, Save the Children reported 6,500 child refugees had newly arrived in Uganda after fleeing rising violence in North Kivu and called for additional funding for local response capacity. The Security Council should:
- Renew MONUSCO’s child protection mandate, preserving the Child Protection Unit’s existing capacity, and ensuring the senior Child Protection Adviser continues to have direct access to senior mission leadership and political and operational space to engage with all parties to conflict, including non-State armed groups; maintain distinct budget lines for child protection;
- Ensure that the critical role of the Child Protection Unit is maintained during MONUSCO’s drawdown, and encourage the use of indicators on child protection, developed with meaningful participation of civil society stakeholders to inform decision making on future child protection capacity in the Mission;
- Urge all parties to immediately cease recruiting and using children, to release those within their ranks, to uphold their obligations under international humanitarian law (IHL) and human rights law (IHRL), and if they have not yet done so, engage with the UN to develop, sign, and implement action plans to end and prevent grave violations;
- Call on all parties to take immediate and specific steps to end and prevent rape and other forms of sexual violence against children, including by ensuring perpetrators of grave violations against children are held accountable and that survivors have access to comprehensive, gender-sensitive, and age-appropriate response and protection; call on the Government to accelerate efforts to implement aspects of its 2012 action plan relating to sexual violence and the Joint Communique signed with the UN to fight sexual violence in conflict;
- Call on all parties to swiftly and fully implement the recommendations of the Security Council Working Group on CAAC (SCWG-CAAC) elaborated in its seventh conclusions on the situation of children and armed conflict in DRC.
France is the lead country on DRC. Niger chairs the 1533 Sanctions Committee.
This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – December 2021.
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Watchlist has provided support via its Partnerships Program in order to strengthen local efforts to monitor, report on, and respond to grave violations against children. This support has included timely outreach and trainings for local civil society actors in Eastern DRC. Watchlist currently provides technical support, including mentoring, to one local organization in the DRC. Working through community-based protection committees, Watchlist’s partner monitors and documents child rights violations. They also engage with local authorities to improve access to referral services and to prevent violations.
Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: FARDC (the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) – recruitment and use of children and sexual violence against children (October 2012) *Delisted in 2017 following compliance with Action Plan to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children. Action Plan on ending and preventing sexual violence against children under implementation.
Sanctions Committee: Sanctions Committee concerning Democratic Republic of Congo (Current Chair: Niger)
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in DRC: 2018; 2014; 2010; 2008; 2007; 2006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on DRC: 2020; 2018; 2014; 2011; 2009; 2007; 2006
UN Mission: MONUSCO
Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict
|Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo||a|
|Forces armees congolaises (FAC)||a|
|Forces armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo (FARDC)~*||a||a,b,c,e||a,b,c,e||a,c,d,f||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||c|
|Mouvement national de liberation du Congo (MLC)||a||a|
|Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Goma||a||a|
|Local defence forces associated with RCD-Goma||a|
|Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-National||a||a|
|Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Kisangani/ML||a||a|
|Union des patriotes congolais (UPC) (Hema militia)||a||a|
|Union des patriotes congolais (UPC)-Thomas Lubanga and Florimert Kisembo factions||a|
|Parti pour l’unite et la sauvenarge du Congo (PUSIC) (Hema Militias)||a||a|
|Front nationaliste et integrationaliste (FNI) (Lendu)||a||a,b||a||a,e||a||a,c||a,c|
|Front populaire pour la reconciliation de l’Ituri (FPRI) (Ngiti)||a|
|Mai-Mai in the Kivus, Maniema and Katanga||a,b|
|Mai-Mai groups in North and South Kivu, Maniema and Katanga who have not integrated into FARDC||a||a,e|
|Union des patriotes congolais pour la paix (also known as Mai-Mai Lafontaine)*||a,d,f||a,c||a,c||a,c||a||a||a||a||a|
|Alliance des patriotes pour un Congo libre et souverain*||a||a||a||a||a|
|Mai Mai “Tawimbi”||a|
|Forces armes populaires congolaises (FAPC)||a||a,b|
|Laurent Nkunda and Jules Mutebutsi, dissident elements of FARDC||a,c|
|Non-integrated FARDC elements loyal to rebel leader Laurent Nkunda||a,e||a,b,c,e|
|Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR)*||a,b,c||a,e||a,b,c,e||a||a,c||a,c||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d,e|
|Force de résistance patriotique de l’Ituri (FRPI)*/Front Populaire pour la Justice au Congo (FPJC)||a,e||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d,e|
|Mouvement revolutionnaire congolais (MRC)||a,e|
|Congres national pour la defense du peuple (CNDP), formerly led by Laurent Nkunda and now Bosco Ntaganda||a,b,d||a,c||a,c||a,c|
|Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)*||a,b,c,e||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c,e||a,b,c,e|
|Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23)||a,c||a,c|
|Allied Democratic Forces (ADF)||a,d||a,b,d||a,b,d||a,b,d,e|
|Mai-Mai Kata Katanga||a||a||a||a|
|Nduma défense du Congo-Rénové/Mai-Mai Cheka||a,b||a,b||a,b||a,b|
a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children
d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children
~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.