D. R. Congo
Fifteen parties are listed for grave violations in the annexes of the SG’s 2019 annual report on CAC, including the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC) for rape and other forms of sexual violence. In June, the SG is expected to report on the implementation of MONUSCO’s mandate, pursuant to SCR 2502 (2020). According to the March periodic report (S/2020/214), 122 grave violations against children were verified in December 2019 and January 2020. During the same period, 82 children (12 girls and 70 boys) escaped or were separated from armed groups, and three children were killed and seven maimed in crossfire during military operations. MONUSCO continues to negotiate the release of children from armed groups and, to date, has secured commitments to end child recruitment by 29 commanders of armed groups, factions, and militias. Rape and other forms of sexual violence continue to be a concern. Girls were reported among the 41 cases of rape attributed to the FARDC and 101 cases attributed to armed assailants in Ituri between September 2018 and September 2019. According to UNICEF, the COVID-19 pandemic has left children at heightened risk of abuse, neglect, exploitation, and violence, and some containment measures do not adequately account for gender-specific needs and vulnerability. The Security Council should:
- Urge the Government to sustain the gains of its completed action plan on recruitment and use, and fully implement its action plan on sexual violence against children; support the CTFMR’s engagement with non-State armed groups, including to negotiate action plans as per SCR 1612 (2005) and subsequent resolutions on CAC;
- Urge the Government to ensure swift and full implementation of the Congolese National Police’s (PNC) action plan to prevent and end conflict-related sexual violence adopted in November 2019, and to prioritize criminal investigations and prosecutions, including cases involving child survivors;
- Ensure child protection functions, including monitoring and reporting on grave violations, are preserved in light of measures to contain the spread of COVID-19, and that the Child Protection Adviser (CPA) continues to have direct access to senior mission leadership and political and operational space to engage with all parties to conflict, including non-State armed groups;
- Ensure child protection functions are preserved and adequately funded in MONUSCO’s transition and drawdown strategies, and that future withdrawal decisions are guided by clear benchmarks and indicators of tangible progress in protection, stabilization, structural changes in governance, and security.
France is the lead country on the DRC.
This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – June 2020.
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Watchlist has provided support via its Partnerships Program in order to strengthen local efforts to monitor, report on, and respond to grave violations against children. This support has included timely outreach and trainings for local civil society actors in Eastern DRC. Watchlist currently provides technical support, including mentoring, to one local organization in the DRC. Working through community-based protection committees, Watchlist’s partner monitors and documents child rights violations. They also engage with local authorities to improve access to referral services and to prevent violations.
Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: FARDC (the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) – recruitment and use of children and sexual violence against children (October 2012) *Delisted in 2017 following compliance with Action Plan to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children. Action Plan on ending and preventing sexual violence against children under implementation.
Sanctions Committee: Sanctions Committee concerning Democratic Republic of Congo (Current Chair: Niger)
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in DRC: 2018; 2014; 2010; 2008; 2007; 2006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on DRC: 2018; 2014; 2011; 2009; 2007; 2006
UN Mission: MONUSCO
Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict
|Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo||a|
|Forces armees congolaises (FAC)||a|
|Forces armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo (FARDC)~*||a||a,b,c,e||a,b,c,e||a,c,d,f||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||c|
|Mouvement national de liberation du Congo (MLC)||a||a|
|Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Goma||a||a|
|Local defence forces associated with RCD-Goma||a|
|Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-National||a||a|
|Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Kisangani/ML||a||a|
|Union des patriotes congolais (UPC) (Hema militia)||a||a|
|Union des patriotes congolais (UPC)-Thomas Lubanga and Florimert Kisembo factions||a|
|Parti pour l’unite et la sauvenarge du Congo (PUSIC) (Hema Militias)||a||a|
|Front nationaliste et integrationaliste (FNI) (Lendu)||a||a,b||a||a,e||a||a,c||a,c|
|Front populaire pour la reconciliation de l’Ituri (FPRI) (Ngiti)||a|
|Mai-Mai in the Kivus, Maniema and Katanga||a,b|
|Mai-Mai groups in North and South Kivu, Maniema and Katanga who have not integrated into FARDC||a||a,e|
|Union des patriotes congolais pour la paix (also known as Mai-Mai Lafontaine)*||a,d,f||a,c||a,c||a,c||a||a||a||a||a|
|Alliance des patriotes pour un Congo libre et souverain*||a||a||a||a||a|
|Mai Mai “Tawimbi”||a|
|Forces armes populaires congolaises (FAPC)||a||a,b|
|Laurent Nkunda and Jules Mutebutsi, dissident elements of FARDC||a,c|
|Non-integrated FARDC elements loyal to rebel leader Laurent Nkunda||a,e||a,b,c,e|
|Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR)*||a,b,c||a,e||a,b,c,e||a||a,c||a,c||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d,e|
|Force de résistance patriotique de l’Ituri (FRPI)*/Front Populaire pour la Justice au Congo (FPJC)||a,e||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d,e|
|Mouvement revolutionnaire congolais (MRC)||a,e|
|Congres national pour la defense du peuple (CNDP), formerly led by Laurent Nkunda and now Bosco Ntaganda||a,b,d||a,c||a,c||a,c|
|Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)*||a,b,c,e||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c,e||a,b,c,e|
|Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23)||a,c||a,c|
|Allied Democratic Forces (ADF)||a,d||a,b,d||a,b,d||a,b,d,e|
|Mai-Mai Kata Katanga||a||a||a||a|
|Nduma défense du Congo-Rénové/Mai-Mai Cheka||a,b||a,b||a,b||a,b|
a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children
d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children
~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.