D. R. Congo
Fifteen non-State armed groups (NSAGs) are listed in the annexes of the SG’s 2023 annual report on CAAC for various grave violations against children, and the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC) are listed for rape and other forms of sexual violence. In December, MONUSCO’s mandate is up for renewal, per SCR 2666 (2022). According to the SG’s September report on MONUSCO (S/2023/691), between June and August, the UN verified 417 grave violations, that majority of which were cases of recruitment and use (185 children). According to the UN, grave violations against children in the DRC have increased by 41 percent in the first half of 2023 as compared to the same period a year ago. Escalation of violence since October, has led to further displacement, with more than five percent of children in DRC, or 2.8 million children, reportedly now displaced, and concerns of sexual- and gender-based violence against women and girls. The Security Council should:
- Renew MONUSCO’s child protection mandate, ensure that the mission is adequately resourced to fully and effectively implement this mandate, including by preserving the current dedicated child protection capacity;
- Stress the need to maintain adequate child protection capacity during MONUSCO’s transition and to subsequently increase child protection capacity in the UN Country Team, including capacity for monitoring and reporting on grave violations per SCR 1612 (2005) and subsequent resolutions on CAAC and for continuing to strengthen the capacities of Government Forces and other State actors to protect the rights of conflict-affected children; and ensure drawdown timelines allow appropriate time for planning, resource allocation, and capacity building;
- Urge all armed groups to immediately cease recruiting and using children, release those within their ranks, uphold their obligations under IHL and IHRL, and if they have not yet done so, engage with the UN to develop and implement concrete commitments, including action plans where relevant, to end and prevent grave violations against children;
- Encourage the Government to continue its cooperation with the UN on screening and age verification to prevent the recruitment of children, call for age verification to be implemented at the territorial level, and encourage continued efforts to hold perpetrators of grave violations accountable;
- Call on all parties to take immediate and specific steps to end and prevent rape and other forms of sexual violence against children, including by ensuring that survivors have access to comprehensive, gender-sensitive, and age-appropriate response and protection, and call on the Government to accelerate efforts to implement aspects of its 2012 action plan relating to sexual violence and the Joint Communique signed with the UN to fight sexual violence in conflict;
- Call for the swift and full implementation of the recommendations of the Security Council Working Group on CAAC (SCWG-CAAC) elaborated in its eighth conclusions on DRC.
FRANCE IS THE SECURITY COUNCIL PENHOLDER ON DRC.
This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – December 2023.
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Watchlist has provided support via its Partnerships Program in order to strengthen local efforts to monitor, report on, and respond to grave violations against children. This support has included timely outreach and trainings for local civil society actors in Eastern DRC. Watchlist currently provides technical support, including mentoring, to one local organization in the DRC. Working through community-based protection committees, Watchlist’s partner monitors and documents child rights violations. They also engage with local authorities to improve access to referral services and to prevent violations.
Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: FARDC (the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) – recruitment and use of children and sexual violence against children (October 2012) *Delisted in 2017 following compliance with Action Plan to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children. Action Plan on ending and preventing sexual violence against children under implementation.
Sanctions Committee: Sanctions Committee concerning Democratic Republic of Congo (Current Chair: Niger)
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in DRC: 2022; 2020; 2018; 2014; 2010; 2008; 2007; 2006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on DRC: 2020; 2018; 2014; 2011; 2009; 2007; 2006
UN Mission: MONUSCO
Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict
|Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo||a|
|Forces armees congolaises (FAC)||a|
|Forces armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo (FARDC)~*||a||a,b,c,e||a,b,c,e||a,c,d,f||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||c|
|Mouvement national de liberation du Congo (MLC)||a||a|
|Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Goma||a||a|
|Local defence forces associated with RCD-Goma||a|
|Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-National||a||a|
|Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Kisangani/ML||a||a|
|Union des patriotes congolais (UPC) (Hema militia)||a||a|
|Union des patriotes congolais (UPC)-Thomas Lubanga and Florimert Kisembo factions||a|
|Parti pour l’unite et la sauvenarge du Congo (PUSIC) (Hema Militias)||a||a|
|Front nationaliste et integrationaliste (FNI) (Lendu)||a||a,b||a||a,e||a||a,c||a,c|
|Front populaire pour la reconciliation de l’Ituri (FPRI) (Ngiti)||a|
|Mai-Mai in the Kivus, Maniema and Katanga||a,b|
|Mai-Mai groups in North and South Kivu, Maniema and Katanga who have not integrated into FARDC||a||a,e|
|Union des patriotes congolais pour la paix (also known as Mai-Mai Lafontaine)*||a,d,f||a,c||a,c||a,c||a||a||a||a||a|
|Alliance des patriotes pour un Congo libre et souverain*||a||a||a||a||a|
|Mai Mai “Tawimbi”||a|
|Forces armes populaires congolaises (FAPC)||a||a,b|
|Laurent Nkunda and Jules Mutebutsi, dissident elements of FARDC||a,c|
|Non-integrated FARDC elements loyal to rebel leader Laurent Nkunda||a,e||a,b,c,e|
|Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR)*||a,b,c||a,e||a,b,c,e||a||a,c||a,c||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d,e|
|Force de résistance patriotique de l’Ituri (FRPI)*/Front Populaire pour la Justice au Congo (FPJC)||a,e||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d||a,c,d,e|
|Mouvement revolutionnaire congolais (MRC)||a,e|
|Congres national pour la defense du peuple (CNDP), formerly led by Laurent Nkunda and now Bosco Ntaganda||a,b,d||a,c||a,c||a,c|
|Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)*||a,b,c,e||a,c||a,c||a,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c||a,b,c,e||a,b,c,e|
|Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23)||a,c||a,c|
|Allied Democratic Forces (ADF)||a,d||a,b,d||a,b,d||a,b,d,e|
|Mai-Mai Kata Katanga||a||a||a||a|
|Nduma défense du Congo-Rénové/Mai-Mai Cheka||a,b||a,b||a,b||a,b|
a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children
d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children
~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.