D. R. Congo

Advocacy

Fifteen parties are listed for grave violations in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s (SG) 2019 annual report on children and armed conflict, including the Armed Forces of the DRC for rape and other forms of sexual violence against children. MONUSCO’s mandate is up for renewal in December, pursuant to SCR 2463 (2019), following an independent strategic review. The SG’s latest report (S/2019/783) noted an arrest warrant was issued for the leader of the NDC-R militia for crimes including the recruitment of children. Conflict-related sexual violence reportedly impacted 56 children between April and June 2019 (para. 29), and in November, the Congolese National Police (PNC) signed an action plan to prevent and end conflict-related sexual violence. On November 7, Bosco Ntaganda was sentenced by the International Criminal Court (ICC) to 30 years in prison for crimes against humanity and war crimes, including the recruitment and use of children. Over 300,000 people, mainly women and children, displaced due to violence in eastern Congo remain in precarious living conditions and are vulnerable to harassment, assault, and sexual exploitation. The Security Council should:

  • Welcome the PNC action plan to prevent and end conflict-related sexual violence, and urge the Government to prioritize criminal investigations and prosecutions, including cases involving child victims;
  • Urge the Government to sustain the gains of its completed action plan on recruitment and use, and fully implement its action plan on sexual violence against children; support Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting (CTFMR) engagement with non-State armed groups, including to negotiate action plans as per SCR 1612 (2005) and subsequent resolutions on CAAC;
  • Renew MONUSCO’s child protection mandate, preserving the existing capacity of the Child Protection Unit, and ensuring Child Protection Advisors (CPAs) continue to have direct access to senior mission leadership and political and operational space to engage with all parties to conflict, including non-State armed groups; maintain distinct budget lines for child protection;
  • Ensure child protection functions are preserved and adequately funded in MONUSCO drawdown strategies, and that future withdrawal decisions are guided by clear benchmarks and indicators of tangible progress in protection, stabilization, structural changes in governance, and security.

France is the lead country on the DRC.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – December 2019.

Partnerships

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Watchlist has provided support via its Partnerships Program in order to strengthen local efforts to monitor, report on, and respond to grave violations against children. This support has included timely outreach and trainings for local civil society actors in Eastern DRC. Watchlist currently provides technical support, including mentoring, to one local organization in the DRC. Working through community-based protection committees, Watchlist’s partner monitors and documents child rights violations. They also engage with local authorities to improve access to referral services and to prevent violations.

Publications

UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: FARDC (the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) – recruitment and use of children and sexual violence against children (October 2012)
Sanctions Committee: Sanctions Committee concerning Democratic Republic of Congo
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in DRC: 2018; 20142010; 2008; 2007; 2006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on DRC: 201820142011200920072006
UN Mission: MONUSCO

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo a
Forces armees congolaises (FAC) a
Forces armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo (FARDC)~* a a,b,c,e a,b,c,e a,c,d,f a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c c
Mouvement national de liberation du Congo (MLC) a a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Goma a a
Local defence forces associated with RCD-Goma a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-National a a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Kisangani/ML a a
Union des patriotes congolais (UPC) (Hema militia) a a
Union des patriotes congolais (UPC)-Thomas Lubanga and Florimert Kisembo factions a
Parti pour l’unite et la sauvenarge du Congo (PUSIC) (Hema Militias) a a
Masunzu’s forces a a
Lendu militias a
Front nationaliste et integrationaliste (FNI) (Lendu) a a,b a a,e a a,c a,c
Front populaire pour la reconciliation de l’Ituri (FPRI) (Ngiti) a
Ex-FAR/Interahamwe a a
Mai-Mai a a
Mai-Mai in the Kivus, Maniema and Katanga a,b
Mai-Mai groups in North and South Kivu, Maniema and Katanga who have not integrated into FARDC a a,e
Union des patriotes congolais pour la paix (also known as Mai-Mai Lafontaine)* a,d,f a,c a,c a,c a a a a a
Alliance des patriotes pour un Congo libre et souverain* a a a a a
Mai-Mai Simba* c a,c a,c a,c a,c
Mai Mai “Tawimbi” a
Forces armes populaires congolaises (FAPC) a a,b
Mudundu-40 a a
Laurent Nkunda and Jules Mutebutsi, dissident elements of FARDC a,c
Non-integrated FARDC elements loyal to rebel leader Laurent Nkunda a,e a,b,c,e
Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR)* a,b,c a,e a,b,c,e a a,c a,c a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d,e
Force de résistance patriotique de l’Ituri (FRPI)*/Front Populaire pour la Justice au Congo (FPJC) a,e a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d,e
Mouvement revolutionnaire congolais (MRC) a,e
Congres national pour la defense du peuple (CNDP), formerly led by Laurent Nkunda and now Bosco Ntaganda a,b,d a,c a,c a,c
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)* a,b,c,e a,c a,c a,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c,e a,b,c,e
Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23) a,c a,c
Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) a,d a,b,d a,b,d a,b,d,e
Mai-Mai Kata Katanga a a a a
Nduma défense du Congo-Rénové/Mai-Mai Cheka a,b a,b a,b a,b
Nyatura a a a a
Raia Mutomboki a,c a,c
Mai-Mai Mazembe a,b

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.

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