D. R. Congo

Advocacy

The Working Group received the SG’s sixth report on the situation of children and armed conflict in the DRC in June, and began conclusion negotiations in late July. Fifteen armed groups are listed for grave violations against children, and the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC) are listed for rape and other forms of sexual violence. In its conclusions, the Working Group should:

  • Urge the Government, UN entities, and other donors to provide sustainable and long-term financial support for reintegration and rehabilitation programming that takes into account the specific needs of girls;
  • Call on the Government to promptly investigate and ensure accountability for all perpetrators of grave child rights violations, including national security forces responsible for killing and maiming children in the Kasais, and call on all parties to uphold their obligations under international law and put in place concrete measures to limit the impact of armed conflict on children;
  • Urge the Government to sustain the gains of its completed action plan on recruitment and use, including through ongoing child protection training of national security forces on the prohibition of the recruitment and use of children for military purposes, including support roles such as porters and children used for domestic and sexual purposes; and to implement fully and without delay its action plan to end and prevent sexual violence against children by the FARDC and other security forces, and encourage MONUSCO to continue supporting the Government in these efforts; furthermore support the engagement of the CTFMR with non-state armed groups, including to negotiate action plans to end violations;
  • Expressing concern about children deprived of liberty, including inhuman treatment and torture, remind all parties that children should never be criminalized, detained, and prosecuted solely for their alleged association with armed forces or groups; they should be considered primarily as victims and handed over to child protection actors; and urge the Government to comply with applicable obligations under the UN CRC;
  • Call on all parties to allow the unimpeded delivery of humanitarian assistance, including by removing administrative impediments, and cease attacks on humanitarian personnel; furthermore, request the SG to ensure the effectiveness of the MRM, including by strengthening monitoring and reporting on the denial of humanitarian access;
  • Continue to support MONUSCO’s dedicated Child Protection Section and sufficient Child Protection Advisors (CPAs), and ensure that CPAs continue to have direct access to senior mission leadership, have political and operational space to engage with parties to conflict, and lead the mission’s work on the MRM; to this end, the mission must retain distinct budget lines for child protection;
  • Call upon all parties to cease attacks on and military use of schools, and in particular, urge the Government to uphold its commitments under the Safe Schools Declaration to implement the Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use, as well as the 2013 ministerial directive by the Minister of Defense stating that all military personnel found guilty of using schools for military purposes would face severe criminal and disciplinary sanctions.

Sweden is the current Chair of the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update: August 2018.

Partnerships

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Watchlist has provided support via its Partnerships Program in order to strengthen local efforts to monitor, report on, and respond to grave violations against children. This support has included timely outreach and trainings for local civil society actors in Eastern DRC. Watchlist currently provides technical support, including mentoring, to one local organization in the DRC. Working through community-based protection committees, Watchlist’s partner monitors and documents child rights violations. They also engage with local authorities to improve access to referral services and to prevent violations.

Publications

UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: FARDC (the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) – recruitment and use of children and sexual violence against children (October 2012)
Sanctions Committee: Sanctions Committee concerning Democratic Republic of Congo
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in DRC: 2018; 20142010; 2008; 2007; 2006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on DRC: 201820142011200920072006
UN Mission: MONUSCO

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo a
Forces armees congolaises (FAC) a
Forces armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo (FARDC)~* a a,b,c,e a,b,c,e a,c,d,f a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c c
Mouvement national de liberation du Congo (MLC) a a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Goma a a
Local defence forces associated with RCD-Goma a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-National a a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Kisangani/ML a a
Union des patriotes congolais (UPC) (Hema militia) a a
Union des patriotes congolais (UPC)-Thomas Lubanga and Florimert Kisembo factions a
Parti pour l’unite et la sauvenarge du Congo (PUSIC) (Hema Militias) a a
Masunzu’s forces a a
Lendu militias a
Front nationaliste et integrationaliste (FNI) (Lendu) a a,b a a,e a a,c a,c
Front populaire pour la reconciliation de l’Ituri (FPRI) (Ngiti) a
Ex-FAR/Interahamwe a a
Mai-Mai a a
Mai-Mai in the Kivus, Maniema and Katanga a,b
Mai-Mai groups in North and South Kivu, Maniema and Katanga who have not integrated into FARDC a a,e
Union des patriotes congolais pour la paix (also known as Mai-Mai Lafontaine)* a,d,f a,c a,c a,c a a a a a
Alliance des patriotes pour un Congo libre et souverain* a a a a a
Mai-Mai Simba* c a,c a,c a,c a,c
Mai Mai “Tawimbi” a
Forces armes populaires congolaises (FAPC) a a,b
Mudundu-40 a a
Laurent Nkunda and Jules Mutebutsi, dissident elements of FARDC a,c
Non-integrated FARDC elements loyal to rebel leader Laurent Nkunda a,e a,b,c,e
Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR)* a,b,c a,e a,b,c,e a a,c a,c a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d,e
Force de résistance patriotique de l’Ituri (FRPI)*/Front Populaire pour la Justice au Congo (FPJC) a,e a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d,e
Mouvement revolutionnaire congolais (MRC) a,e
Congres national pour la defense du peuple (CNDP), formerly led by Laurent Nkunda and now Bosco Ntaganda a,b,d a,c a,c a,c
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)* a,b,c,e a,c a,c a,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c,e a,b,c,e
Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23) a,c a,c
Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) a,d a,b,d a,b,d a,b,d,e
Mai-Mai Kata Katanga a a a a
Nduma défense du Congo-Rénové/Mai-Mai Cheka a,b a,b a,b a,b
Nyatura a a a a
Raia Mutomboki a,c a,c
Mai-Mai Mazembe a,b

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.

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