D. R. Congo

Advocacy

The Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict (SCWG-CAAC) adopted conclusions in August after receiving the Secretary-General’s (SG’s) sixth report on the situation of children and armed conflict in the DRC in June. Fifteen armed groups are listed for grave violations against children, and the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC) are listed for rape and other forms of sexual violence. In December, the SG is expected to present his quarterly report on MONUSCO, and the Group of Experts will provide its mid-term report. The DRC’s long-delayed presidential elections are scheduled for December 23. In October, the Council visited the DRC, calling for the election to be credible and peaceful. Attacks by rebel groups and general insecurity in the Northeast, including a November attack on peacekeepers, have further hampered response to the Ebola outbreak, declared by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in August and now considered the second largest in history. The Council should:

  • Call on the Government to promptly investigate and ensure accountability for all grave child rights violations, including killing and maiming children in the Kasais by national security forces, and call on all parties to uphold their obligations under international law and put in place concrete measures to limit the impact of armed conflict on children;
  • Request MONUSCO to monitor potential hotspots for elections-related violence, including in the pre- and post-electoral periods, including areas where children frequent such as schools; additionally call on all parties to cease attacks on and military use of schools, and urge the Government to uphold its commitments under the Safe Schools Declaration;
  • Call on all parties to allow the unimpeded delivery of humanitarian assistance, including by removing administrative impediments, and cease attacks on aid workers; to promote accountability, express support for the MRM’s role in monitoring and reporting on the denial of humanitarian access;
  • Urge the Government to sustain the gains of its completed action plan on recruitment and use, including through ongoing training of national security forces on the prohibition of the recruitment and use of children, and to implement fully and without delay its action plan to end and prevent sexual violence against children by the FARDC and other security forces; furthermore support the engagement of the Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting (CTFMR) with non-State armed groups, including to negotiate action plans;
  • Express concern about detention and deprivation of liberty, including inhumane treatment and torture of children for their alleged association with armed groups; and urge the Government to comply with applicable obligations under international law.

France is the lead country on the DRC. Kuwait chairs the 1533 Sanctions Committee.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update: December 2018.

Partnerships

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Watchlist has provided support via its Partnerships Program in order to strengthen local efforts to monitor, report on, and respond to grave violations against children. This support has included timely outreach and trainings for local civil society actors in Eastern DRC. Watchlist currently provides technical support, including mentoring, to one local organization in the DRC. Working through community-based protection committees, Watchlist’s partner monitors and documents child rights violations. They also engage with local authorities to improve access to referral services and to prevent violations.

Publications

UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: FARDC (the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) – recruitment and use of children and sexual violence against children (October 2012)
Sanctions Committee: Sanctions Committee concerning Democratic Republic of Congo
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in DRC: 2018; 20142010; 2008; 2007; 2006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on DRC: 201820142011200920072006
UN Mission: MONUSCO

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo a
Forces armees congolaises (FAC) a
Forces armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo (FARDC)~* a a,b,c,e a,b,c,e a,c,d,f a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c c
Mouvement national de liberation du Congo (MLC) a a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Goma a a
Local defence forces associated with RCD-Goma a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-National a a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Kisangani/ML a a
Union des patriotes congolais (UPC) (Hema militia) a a
Union des patriotes congolais (UPC)-Thomas Lubanga and Florimert Kisembo factions a
Parti pour l’unite et la sauvenarge du Congo (PUSIC) (Hema Militias) a a
Masunzu’s forces a a
Lendu militias a
Front nationaliste et integrationaliste (FNI) (Lendu) a a,b a a,e a a,c a,c
Front populaire pour la reconciliation de l’Ituri (FPRI) (Ngiti) a
Ex-FAR/Interahamwe a a
Mai-Mai a a
Mai-Mai in the Kivus, Maniema and Katanga a,b
Mai-Mai groups in North and South Kivu, Maniema and Katanga who have not integrated into FARDC a a,e
Union des patriotes congolais pour la paix (also known as Mai-Mai Lafontaine)* a,d,f a,c a,c a,c a a a a a
Alliance des patriotes pour un Congo libre et souverain* a a a a a
Mai-Mai Simba* c a,c a,c a,c a,c
Mai Mai “Tawimbi” a
Forces armes populaires congolaises (FAPC) a a,b
Mudundu-40 a a
Laurent Nkunda and Jules Mutebutsi, dissident elements of FARDC a,c
Non-integrated FARDC elements loyal to rebel leader Laurent Nkunda a,e a,b,c,e
Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR)* a,b,c a,e a,b,c,e a a,c a,c a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d,e
Force de résistance patriotique de l’Ituri (FRPI)*/Front Populaire pour la Justice au Congo (FPJC) a,e a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d,e
Mouvement revolutionnaire congolais (MRC) a,e
Congres national pour la defense du peuple (CNDP), formerly led by Laurent Nkunda and now Bosco Ntaganda a,b,d a,c a,c a,c
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)* a,b,c,e a,c a,c a,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c,e a,b,c,e
Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23) a,c a,c
Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) a,d a,b,d a,b,d a,b,d,e
Mai-Mai Kata Katanga a a a a
Nduma défense du Congo-Rénové/Mai-Mai Cheka a,b a,b a,b a,b
Nyatura a a a a
Raia Mutomboki a,c a,c
Mai-Mai Mazembe a,b

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.

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