SUDAN (Darfur)

Four non-State armed groups are listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s (SG) 2020 annual report on children and armed conflict (CAAC) for recruitment and use of children. In February, the SG is expected to report on the implementation of UNITAMS’ mandate, pursuant to SCR 2524 (2020). In December, the Council adopted Resolution 2559 (2020), terminating the mandate of UNAMID and initiating the withdrawal of its personnel. In January, intercommunal violence in Darfur reportedly left 250 people dead, including at least 10 children and three humanitarian workers, and at least 300 people wounded, including seven children. According to OCHA, reported incidents of intercommunal violence in Darfur doubled during the second half of 2020, as compared to the same period in 2019. Briefing the Council in December, Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda of the International Criminal Court (ICC) noted that her office continues to monitor allegations of repeated attacks on civilians in Darfur, as well as continuing reports of sexual‑ and gender-based violence and crimes against children. The Security Council should:

  • Condemn all grave violations against children, particularly reports of killing and maiming and sexual violence in Darfur; and demand that all parties uphold their obligations under international humanitarian (IHL) and human rights law (IHRL);
  • Encourage the Government to continue efforts to improve humanitarian access, and call on non-State armed groups to allow safe and unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance to children and other civilians in need;
  • Call on the Government to swiftly and fully implement its National Plan on Protection of Civilians; and urge all listed parties who have not already done so to engage with the UN to develop, sign, and implement action plans to end and prevent grave violations;
  • Call for the swift deployment of adequate child protection resources to allow UNITAMS to fully and promptly deliver on its child protection mandate, including monitoring and reporting on grave violations, per SCR 2524 (2020), noting that UNAMID’s child protection section will close by mid-February 2021;
  • Call on all parties to swiftly and fully implement the recommendations of the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict (SCWG-CAAC) elaborated in its sixth conclusions on children and armed conflict in the Sudan.

The United Kingdom is the lead country on Sudan.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – February 2021.


In November, UNISFA’s mandate is up for renewal, pursuant to SCR 2519 (2020). The Secretary-General’s (SG) April report (S/2020/308) notes an increase in intercommunal violence, resulting in 14 children injured in armed attacks. The report also documents cases of rape and sexual violence affecting six children. The SG’s October report (S/2020/1019) states that “protection, in particular of children and against gender-based violence, remained the key challenge because of the limited resources available.” The Security Council should:

  • Strongly condemn all grave violations against children, call for perpetrators to be held accountable, and urge all parties to uphold their obligations under IHL and IHRL;
  • Renew its call to sustain adequate child protection expertise in UNISFA, and ensure dedicated capacity and access to monitor and report on child rights violations in Abyei.

The United States is the lead country on Sudan/South Sudan.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update: November 2020.


UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: SPLM-North – recruitment and use of children (November 2016); JEM – recruitment and use of children (September 2012); SLA/Minnawi – recruitment and use of children (June 2007)
Previous Action Plans: Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) (November 2009) *Signed as an armed group before South Sudan’s independence; Sudan Liberation Army/Free Will (June 2010); Sudan Liberation Army/Abu Gasim (August 2010); Sudan Government security forces, including the Sudanese Armed Forces, the Popular Defense Forces, and the Sudan Police Forces (March 2016) *Delisted in 2018 following compliance with Action Plan. 
Sanctions Committee: The Sudan Sanctions Committee (Current Chair: Estonia) 
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Sudan: 2020; 2017; 2011200920072006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Sudan: 20202017; 2012200920082006

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Government-allied militia, the South Sudan Unity Movement (SSUM) a a
Government-supported militias (backed by Government of Sudan) a,b,c,d
Pro-Government militias* a a a a a a a a
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) a a
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement North (SPLM-N) *~ a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLM/A) (Minawi) a,b,c,e
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Minni Minawi* a,b,c a,b a a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Peace Wing a a a a
Janjaweed a,b,c,e a,b,c,e a,b,c,d,f
Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)*~ a a,b,d a a a a a a a a
Justice and Equality Movement (Peace Wing) a,b,c a a a a
Police forces (camel police) a
Police forces, including the Central Reserve Police & Border Intelligence Forces* a,b,c a,b,c a a a a a a
Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) a,b,e,f a,b,c,d,f a,b,c,d a
Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) a,b a,c a a a
Joint Integrated Units of the Sudan Armed Forces and SPLA a
The White Army (Lou Nuer) a,b
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) a a a,b,c a,b,c
Chadian opposition forces a a,b,c a,b a a
Popular Defense Forces (PDF)*~ a,b,c a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abu Gasim/Mother Wing a,b,c a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Free Will a,b,c a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abdul Wahid* a,e a a a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Shafi a,e
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Unity a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Historical Leadership a a a
Movement of Popular Force for Rights and Democracy a a a
Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF)*~ (including Sudan Police Forces) a,c a,c a a a a a a a
South Sudan Defence Forces, including the forces of Major-General Gabriel Tang Ginyi a,b,c
Pibor Defence Forces a,b,c

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.