Five non-State armed groups are listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s (SG) 2022 annual report on children and armed conflict (CAAC) for recruiting and using children in the Sudan. In February, the SG will report on UNITAMS, pursuant to SCR 2636 (2022). According to the SG’s December report (S/2022/898), the Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting (CTFMR) verified 51 grave violations against 45 children between August and November 2022. Grave violations included the killing and maiming of 32 children (seven boys, 10 girls, 15 of unknown sex), incidents of rape and sexual violence against 10 girls, the abduction of three children (two boys, one girl), one attack on a school, and two incidents of the denial of humanitarian access. Explosive remnants of war (ERW) accounted for eight of the verified incidents of killing and maiming. The vast majority of grave violations were unattributed to a specific perpetrator. In December, the Security Council Working Group on CAAC (SCWG-CAAC) adopted its latest conclusions on the Sudan. The Security Council should:

  • Call on all parties to uphold their obligations under international humanitarian law (IHL) and human rights law (IHRL), and urge all listed parties to engage with the UN to develop, sign, and implement action plans to end and prevent grave violations, and to expedite implementation of existing action plans and roadmaps, including the National Plan for the Protection of Civilians;
  • Call for accelerated efforts to end impunity for perpetrators of grave violations, including violations committed by Government Security Forces; support comprehensive, gender-sensitive, and age-appropriate response systems and services for child survivors of sexual violence and strengthened preventive measures; and encourage Sudanese authorities to engage with the UN to develop and implement a national prevention plan on grave violations against children;
  • Demand that all parties allow and facilitate the safe, unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance to affected populations, especially children; and respect and protect humanitarian personnel, assets, and infrastructure;
  • Ensure sufficient resources are allocated and swiftly deployed to allow UNITAMS to fully deliver on its child protection mandate, pursuant to SCR 1612 (2005) and subsequent resolutions on CAAC;
  • Call for the swift and full implementation of the recommendations of the SCWG-CAAC elaborated in its seventh conclusions on the Sudan.

The United Kingdom is the lead country on the Sudan.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – February 2023.


In April, the SG will report on the implementation of UNISFA’s mandate, which is up for renewal in May, pursuant to SCR 2609 (2021). Since February, inter-communal violence has resumed in Abyei, reportedly leading to deaths and displacement of civilians. UNISFA has called for the immediate cessation of violence and urged all parties to respect human rights and ensure the safety of affected communities. Violence has further intensified since March 5, with at least 36 people killed and an estimated 50,000 displaced following clashes. Humanitarian operations have been suspended in conflict-affected areas. The Security Council should:

  • Renew its call to sustain adequate child protection expertise in UNISFA, including throughout the transition phase, and ensure dedicated capacity and access to monitor and report on child rights violations in Abyei; and urge all parties to uphold their obligations under IHL and IHRL;
  • Call for the protection, rights, well-being, and empowerment of children to be fully incorporated and prioritized in ongoing and future efforts to build and sustain peace at the community level, drawing on the Practical Guidance for Mediators; and encourage and facilitate consideration of children’s views in these processes where possible and compatible with the child’s best interests;
  • Ensure that child protection is appropriately considered and prioritized in ongoing efforts to develop a responsible exit strategy for UNISFA, including monitoring and reporting on grave violations committed against children, building on lessons learned, and consulting with the relevant child protection experts.

The United States is the lead country on Sudan/South Sudan (Abyei).

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – April 2022.


UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: SPLM-North – recruitment and use of children (November 2016); JEM – recruitment and use of children (September 2012); SLA/Minnawi – recruitment and use of children (June 2007)
Previous Action Plans: Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) (November 2009) *Signed as an armed group before South Sudan’s independence; Sudan Liberation Army/Free Will (June 2010); Sudan Liberation Army/Abu Gasim (August 2010); Sudan Government security forces, including the Sudanese Armed Forces, the Popular Defense Forces, and the Sudan Police Forces (March 2016) *Delisted in 2018 following compliance with Action Plan. 
Sanctions Committee: The Sudan Sanctions Committee (Current Chair: Estonia) 
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Sudan: 2020; 2017; 2011200920072006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Sudan: 20202017; 2012200920082006

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Government-allied militia, the South Sudan Unity Movement (SSUM) a a
Government-supported militias (backed by Government of Sudan) a,b,c,d
Pro-Government militias* a a a a a a a a
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) a a
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement North (SPLM-N) *~ a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLM/A) (Minawi) a,b,c,e
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Minni Minawi* a,b,c a,b a a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Peace Wing a a a a
Janjaweed a,b,c,e a,b,c,e a,b,c,d,f
Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)*~ a a,b,d a a a a a a a a
Justice and Equality Movement (Peace Wing) a,b,c a a a a
Police forces (camel police) a
Police forces, including the Central Reserve Police & Border Intelligence Forces* a,b,c a,b,c a a a a a a
Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) a,b,e,f a,b,c,d,f a,b,c,d a
Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) a,b a,c a a a
Joint Integrated Units of the Sudan Armed Forces and SPLA a
The White Army (Lou Nuer) a,b
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) a a a,b,c a,b,c
Chadian opposition forces a a,b,c a,b a a
Popular Defense Forces (PDF)*~ a,b,c a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abu Gasim/Mother Wing a,b,c a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Free Will a,b,c a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abdul Wahid* a,e a a a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Shafi a,e
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Unity a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Historical Leadership a a a
Movement of Popular Force for Rights and Democracy a a a
Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF)*~ (including Sudan Police Forces) a,c a,c a a a a a a a
South Sudan Defence Forces, including the forces of Major-General Gabriel Tang Ginyi a,b,c
Pibor Defence Forces a,b,c

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.