Five armed groups are listed in the annexes of the SG’s 2023 annual report on CAAC for recruiting and using children in Sudan. In September, the Council is expected to meet to discuss the SG’s August report on the implementation of UNITAMS’s mandate (forthcoming at the time of writing). According to the UN, ongoing violence between the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) which broke out on April 15, has so far displaced at least two million children and nearly 14 million children are now in urgent need of humanitarian support. According to the SG’s May report (S/2023/355), the Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting (CTFMR) had verified 13 grave violations against children in Sudan between February 19 until the outbreak of the current fighting, as well as the release of 122 children associated with armed forces and armed groups. As of July, the UN had received reports of over 2,500 severe violations of children’s rights, including reports that 435 children have been killed and at least 2,025 have been injured, in addition to reports of abduction, recruitment into armed groups, attacks on schools, occupation of schools, and denial of humanitarian access. At least 498 children have reportedly died from hunger as critical services run out of supplies or close, and a recent Integrated Food Security Phase Classification snapshot reported that “20.3 million people across Sudan have been driven into high levels of acute food insecurity.” The Security Council should:

  • Reiterate its condemnation of all attacks on humanitarian actors, civilians, especially children, and civilian infrastructure; call on all parties to avoid the use of explosive weapons in populated areas;
  • Demand that all parties uphold their obligations under IHL and IHRL, taking all necessary precautions to protect civilians and civilian objects, including schools and hospitals, in accordance with the principles of precaution, distinction, and proportionality, and implement commitments under the Jeddah Declaration;
  • Reiterate calls for an immediate ceasefire with clearly articulated timeframes, coordination with relevant regional and subregional organizations and humanitarian actors to establish such a ceasefire, as well as to prevent further violations and abuses against civilians, including children;
  • Demand that all parties allow and facilitate the safe, timely, and unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance to affected populations, especially children; and respect and protect humanitarian personnel, assets, and infrastructure; and allow civilians safe passage out of conflict zones.


This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – September 2023.


In May, the SG will report on UNISFA, pursuant to SCR 2660 (2022). From April 3-6, representatives from the Ngok Dinka and Twic Dinka communities, including women and youth, participated in an inter-communal peace conference in which the communities agreed to a cessation of hostilities, unhindered movement along roads, including for humanitarian assistance, and a return of displaced communities. UNICEF had previously noted the impact of escalating inter-communal violence in Abyei on the humanitarian needs of children. The Security Council should:

  • Call for the protection, rights, well-being, and empowerment of children to be fully incorporated and prioritized in ongoing and future efforts to build and sustain peace at the community level, drawing on the Practical Guidance for Mediators; and encourage and facilitate consideration of children’s views in these processes where possible and compatible with the child’s best interests;
  • Ensure that child protection is appropriately considered and prioritized in ongoing efforts to develop a responsible exit strategy for UNISFA, including monitoring and reporting on grave violations committed against children, building on lessons learned, and consulting with the relevant child protection experts.

The United States is the lead country on Sudan/South Sudan (Abyei).

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – May 2023.


UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: SPLM-North – recruitment and use of children (November 2016); JEM – recruitment and use of children (September 2012); SLA/Minnawi – recruitment and use of children (June 2007)
Previous Action Plans: Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) (November 2009) *Signed as an armed group before South Sudan’s independence; Sudan Liberation Army/Free Will (June 2010); Sudan Liberation Army/Abu Gasim (August 2010); Sudan Government security forces, including the Sudanese Armed Forces, the Popular Defense Forces, and the Sudan Police Forces (March 2016) *Delisted in 2018 following compliance with Action Plan. 
Sanctions Committee: The Sudan Sanctions Committee (Current Chair: Estonia) 
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Sudan: 2020; 2017; 2011200920072006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Sudan: 20202017; 2012200920082006

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Government-allied militia, the South Sudan Unity Movement (SSUM) a a
Government-supported militias (backed by Government of Sudan) a,b,c,d
Pro-Government militias* a a a a a a a a
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) a a
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement North (SPLM-N) *~ a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLM/A) (Minawi) a,b,c,e
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Minni Minawi* a,b,c a,b a a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Peace Wing a a a a
Janjaweed a,b,c,e a,b,c,e a,b,c,d,f
Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)*~ a a,b,d a a a a a a a a
Justice and Equality Movement (Peace Wing) a,b,c a a a a
Police forces (camel police) a
Police forces, including the Central Reserve Police & Border Intelligence Forces* a,b,c a,b,c a a a a a a
Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) a,b,e,f a,b,c,d,f a,b,c,d a
Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) a,b a,c a a a
Joint Integrated Units of the Sudan Armed Forces and SPLA a
The White Army (Lou Nuer) a,b
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) a a a,b,c a,b,c
Chadian opposition forces a a,b,c a,b a a
Popular Defense Forces (PDF)*~ a,b,c a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abu Gasim/Mother Wing a,b,c a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Free Will a,b,c a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abdul Wahid* a,e a a a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Shafi a,e
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Unity a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Historical Leadership a a a
Movement of Popular Force for Rights and Democracy a a a
Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF)*~ (including Sudan Police Forces) a,c a,c a a a a a a a
South Sudan Defence Forces, including the forces of Major-General Gabriel Tang Ginyi a,b,c
Pibor Defence Forces a,b,c

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.