Four non-State armed groups are listed for recruitment and use of children in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s (SG) 2019 annual report; three of these have signed action plans to prevent and end grave violations. In January, the SG and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission are expected to issue a special report on UNAMID, pursuant to SCR 2495 (2019), including options for a follow-on presence. The last such special report was issued in October (S/2019/816) prior to the mandate renewal and reported 87 verified grave violations against children from June to September. Most of these violations occurred in the context of infighting between SLA-AW factions in the Jebel Marra. Internally displaced children remain vulnerable to violations, particularly sexual violence. The Security Council should:

  • Condemn all grave violations committed against children, particularly continued incidents of killing and maiming, sexual violence, and abductions in Jebel Marra;
  • Urge the Government to end impunity for perpetrators of sexual violence against children, including through impartial investigations and prosecutions, and support appropriate recovery and protection for survivors;
  • Call on all listed parties to engage or renew engagement with the UN to develop and implement action plans to end and prevent grave violations and encourage parties involved in the Juba peace process to include provisions on child protection in any agreement;
  • Ensure proposals for UNAMID drawdown and any Security Council-mandated follow-on presence in Darfur maintain a focus on protection of civilians, especially children, and ensure adequate resources are allocated, including to the UN Country Team and UNICEF, to continue child protection efforts and the MRM, pursuant to SCR 1612 (2005) and subsequent resolutions on CAAC;
  • Encourage the Government to continue efforts to improve humanitarian access, including removal of administrative barriers that impede aid delivery and monitoring; demand that non-State armed groups allow safe and unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance to children and other civilians in need.

The United Kingdom and Germany are the lead countries on Sudan (Darfur).

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update: January 2020.


The Secretary-General (SG) is expected to report to the Security Council on the situation in Abyei prior to April 15, pursuant to SCR 2497 (2019). The UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) is mandated through May 15, 2020. In January, the Council issued a press statement condemning violence between the Ngok Dinka and Misseriya communities in the Kolom area of Abyei on January 22, which resulted in the deaths of approximately 30 civilians, including children, and called for an immediate cessation of violence against civilians. According to UNISFA, six children who were reported missing after the attack have since been reunited with their families. The Security Council should:

  • Request an update from the Governments of Sudan and South Sudan on efforts to jointly investigate and hold accountable those responsible for the January 22 attack against civilians, including children;
  • Include dedicated child protection advisory capacity within UNISFA’s mandate, including capacity and access to monitor and report on child rights violations in Abyei;
  • Request the SG to include children and armed conflict as a specific aspect of future progress reports on UNISFA, disaggregating data on the six grave violations, and signaling priority concerns to guide Council action on Abyei.

The United States is the lead country on Sudan/South Sudan.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update: April 2020.


UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: SPLM-North – recruitment and use of children (November 2016); Sudanese Government – recruitment and use of children (March 2016); SPLA – recruitment and use of children (November 2009); SLA/Minnawi – recruitment and use of children (June 2007)
JEM – submitted an action plan to the UN on recruitment and use of children (September 2012)
Sanctions Committee: Sudan Sanctions Committee
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Sudan: 2017; 2011200920072006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Sudan: 2017; 2012200920082006

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Government-allied militia, the South Sudan Unity Movement (SSUM) a a
Government-supported militias (backed by Government of Sudan) a,b,c,d
Pro-Government militias* a a a a a a a a
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) a a
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement North (SPLM-N) *~ a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLM/A) (Minawi) a,b,c,e
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Minni Minawi* a,b,c a,b a a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Peace Wing a a a a
Janjaweed a,b,c,e a,b,c,e a,b,c,d,f
Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)*~ a a,b,d a a a a a a a a
Justice and Equality Movement (Peace Wing) a,b,c a a a a
Police forces (camel police) a
Police forces, including the Central Reserve Police & Border Intelligence Forces* a,b,c a,b,c a a a a a a
Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) a,b,e,f a,b,c,d,f a,b,c,d a
Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) a,b a,c a a a
Joint Integrated Units of the Sudan Armed Forces and SPLA a
The White Army (Lou Nuer) a,b
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) a a a,b,c a,b,c
Chadian opposition forces a a,b,c a,b a a
Popular Defense Forces (PDF)*~ a,b,c a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abu Gasim/Mother Wing a,b,c a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Free Will a,b,c a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abdul Wahid* a,e a a a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Shafi a,e
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Unity a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Historical Leadership a a a
Movement of Popular Force for Rights and Democracy a a a
Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF)*~ (including Sudan Police Forces) a,c a,c a a a a a a a
South Sudan Defence Forces, including the forces of Major-General Gabriel Tang Ginyi a,b,c
Pibor Defence Forces a,b,c

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.