Sudan

Advocacy

SUDAN

In August, the Secretary-General (SG) released his seventh report on children and armed conflict (CAAC) in the Sudan (S/2022/627), covering the period from January 2020 to December 2021. During this time, the Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting (CTFMR) verified 520 grave violations against 445 children (287 boys and 157 girls, 1 of unknown sex), as well as 32 grave violations that had taken place in an earlier reporting period. Killing and maiming accounted for 68.5 percent of verified violations, followed by rape and other forms of sexual violence and abduction. Recruitment and use increased since the last reporting period, mostly during recruitment drives in the four months following the signing of the Juba Agreement. The UN also verified the killing and maiming of 20 children in the context of excessive use of force by Government Security Forces during public demonstrations between October and December 2021. The CTFMR noted challenges to its activities due to movement restrictions to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, access constraints following the October 2021 military coup, as well as significantly decreased child protection capacity following the withdrawal of the UNAMID mission. More than half of verified violations (63.5 percent) were not able to be attributed to a specific perpetrator. Where perpetrators were identified, Government Security Forces were found responsible for nearly one-fifth of violations (100), followed by the Sudan Liberation Army-Abdul Wahid (SLA-AW) (60). The Working Group should:

  • Strongly condemn all continuing violations and abuses committed against children, and demand that all parties uphold their obligations under international humanitarian law (IHL) and human rights law (IHRL), taking concrete measures to prevent, or in any event minimize, harm to civilians, including children, in accordance with the principles of precaution, distinction, and proportionality;
  • Urge all armed groups to immediately release all children under 18 from their ranks and prevent and end all child recruitment and use; reiterate that children associated with armed forces and groups should be treated primarily as victims and call on Sudanese authorities to continue implementing the 2018 standard operating procedures for the release and handover of children associated with armed groups and captured during operations;
  • Call for accelerated efforts to end impunity for perpetrators of grave violations, including violations committed by Government Security Forces; support comprehensive, gender-sensitive, and age-appropriate response systems and services for child survivors of sexual violence and strengthened preventive measures; and encourage Sudanese authorities to engage with the UN to develop and implement a national prevention plan on grave violations against children;
  • Urge all listed parties to engage with the UN to develop, sign, and implement action plans to end and prevent grave violations, and to expedite implementation of existing action plans and roadmaps, including the National Plan for the Protection of Civilians;
  • Demand that all parties allow and facilitate the safe, unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance to affected populations, especially children; and respect and protect humanitarian personnel, assets, and infrastructure;
  • Ensure sufficient resources are allocated and swiftly deployed to allow UNITAMS to fully deliver on its child protection mandate, pursuant to SCR 1612 (2005) and subsequent resolutions on CAAC.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – November 2022.

SUDAN/SOUTH SUDAN (ABYEI) 

In April, the SG will report on the implementation of UNISFA’s mandate, which is up for renewal in May, pursuant to SCR 2609 (2021). Since February, inter-communal violence has resumed in Abyei, reportedly leading to deaths and displacement of civilians. UNISFA has called for the immediate cessation of violence and urged all parties to respect human rights and ensure the safety of affected communities. Violence has further intensified since March 5, with at least 36 people killed and an estimated 50,000 displaced following clashes. Humanitarian operations have been suspended in conflict-affected areas. The Security Council should:

  • Renew its call to sustain adequate child protection expertise in UNISFA, including throughout the transition phase, and ensure dedicated capacity and access to monitor and report on child rights violations in Abyei; and urge all parties to uphold their obligations under IHL and IHRL;
  • Call for the protection, rights, well-being, and empowerment of children to be fully incorporated and prioritized in ongoing and future efforts to build and sustain peace at the community level, drawing on the Practical Guidance for Mediators; and encourage and facilitate consideration of children’s views in these processes where possible and compatible with the child’s best interests;
  • Ensure that child protection is appropriately considered and prioritized in ongoing efforts to develop a responsible exit strategy for UNISFA, including monitoring and reporting on grave violations committed against children, building on lessons learned, and consulting with the relevant child protection experts.

The United States is the lead country on Sudan/South Sudan (Abyei).

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – April 2022.

Publications

UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: SPLM-North – recruitment and use of children (November 2016); JEM – recruitment and use of children (September 2012); SLA/Minnawi – recruitment and use of children (June 2007)
Previous Action Plans: Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) (November 2009) *Signed as an armed group before South Sudan’s independence; Sudan Liberation Army/Free Will (June 2010); Sudan Liberation Army/Abu Gasim (August 2010); Sudan Government security forces, including the Sudanese Armed Forces, the Popular Defense Forces, and the Sudan Police Forces (March 2016) *Delisted in 2018 following compliance with Action Plan. 
Sanctions Committee: The Sudan Sanctions Committee (Current Chair: Estonia) 
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Sudan: 2020; 2017; 2011200920072006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Sudan: 20202017; 2012200920082006
UN Mission: UNAMID; UNITAMS

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Government-allied militia, the South Sudan Unity Movement (SSUM) a a
Government-supported militias (backed by Government of Sudan) a,b,c,d
Pro-Government militias* a a a a a a a a
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) a a
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement North (SPLM-N) *~ a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLM/A) (Minawi) a,b,c,e
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Minni Minawi* a,b,c a,b a a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Peace Wing a a a a
Janjaweed a,b,c,e a,b,c,e a,b,c,d,f
Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)*~ a a,b,d a a a a a a a a
Justice and Equality Movement (Peace Wing) a,b,c a a a a
Police forces (camel police) a
Police forces, including the Central Reserve Police & Border Intelligence Forces* a,b,c a,b,c a a a a a a
Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) a,b,e,f a,b,c,d,f a,b,c,d a
Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) a,b a,c a a a
Joint Integrated Units of the Sudan Armed Forces and SPLA a
The White Army (Lou Nuer) a,b
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) a a a,b,c a,b,c
Chadian opposition forces a a,b,c a,b a a
Popular Defense Forces (PDF)*~ a,b,c a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abu Gasim/Mother Wing a,b,c a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Free Will a,b,c a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abdul Wahid* a,e a a a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Shafi a,e
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Unity a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Historical Leadership a a a
Movement of Popular Force for Rights and Democracy a a a
Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF)*~ (including Sudan Police Forces) a,c a,c a a a a a a a
South Sudan Defence Forces, including the forces of Major-General Gabriel Tang Ginyi a,b,c
Pibor Defence Forces a,b,c

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.

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