Five non-state armed groups (NSAGs) are listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s (SG) latest annual report on children and armed conflict (CAAC) for recruitment and use. In May, the SG will report on UNITAMS’ mandate, which is up for renewal in June, pursuant to SCR 2579 (2021). According to the SG’s March report (S/2022/172), the Country Task Force on Monitoring and Reporting (CTFMR) verified the killing and maiming of eight children, incidents of sexual violence against seven girls, one attack on a hospital, and four incidents of denial of humanitarian access. The CTFMR also noted continued access challenges and a deteriorating operational environment. In this context of civil unrest after the October military coup, nine children were killed and 13 were injured during demonstrations, 12 children were subjected to sexual and gender-based violence, boys and girls as young as 12 have been detained by security forces, and children have been impacted by frequent attacks on medical facilities. At least 21 children were reportedly killed, including an 11-month-old infant, in recent violence in West Darfur. The Security Council should:
- Renew UNITAMS’ child protection mandate and ensure that adequate resources are allocated and swiftly deployed to allow UNITAMS to fully deliver on this mandate, including monitoring and reporting on grave violations, pursuant to SCR 1612 (2005) and subsequent resolutions on CAAC;
- Call for accelerated efforts to end impunity for all perpetrators of grave violations, including violations committed by Sudanese Armed Forces and Rapid Support Forces, support comprehensive, gender-sensitive, and age-appropriate response for child survivors of sexual violence, and encourage Sudanese authorities to engage with the UN to develop and implement a national prevention plan on grave violations against children;
- Urge all listed parties to engage with the UN to develop, sign, and implement action plans to end and prevent grave violations, and to expedite implementation of existing action plans and roadmaps, including the National Plan for the Protection of Civilians;
- Call for the protection, rights, well-being, and empowerment of children to be fully incorporated and prioritized in ongoing and future peacebuilding efforts, and encourage and facilitate consideration of children’s views in these processes where possible and compatible with their best interests, pursuant to SCR 2427 (2018) and drawing on the Practical Guidance for Mediators.
The United Kingdom is the lead country on Sudan.
This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – May 2022.
SUDAN/SOUTH SUDAN (ABYEI)
In April, the SG will report on the implementation of UNISFA’s mandate, which is up for renewal in May, pursuant to SCR 2609 (2021). Since February, inter-communal violence has resumed in Abyei, reportedly leading to deaths and displacement of civilians. UNISFA has called for the immediate cessation of violence and urged all parties to respect human rights and ensure the safety of affected communities. Violence has further intensified since March 5, with at least 36 people killed and an estimated 50,000 displaced following clashes. Humanitarian operations have been suspended in conflict-affected areas. The Security Council should:
- Renew its call to sustain adequate child protection expertise in UNISFA, including throughout the transition phase, and ensure dedicated capacity and access to monitor and report on child rights violations in Abyei; and urge all parties to uphold their obligations under IHL and IHRL;
- Call for the protection, rights, well-being, and empowerment of children to be fully incorporated and prioritized in ongoing and future efforts to build and sustain peace at the community level, drawing on the Practical Guidance for Mediators; and encourage and facilitate consideration of children’s views in these processes where possible and compatible with the child’s best interests;
- Ensure that child protection is appropriately considered and prioritized in ongoing efforts to develop a responsible exit strategy for UNISFA, including monitoring and reporting on grave violations committed against children, building on lessons learned, and consulting with the relevant child protection experts.
The United States is the lead country on Sudan/South Sudan (Abyei).
This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – April 2022.
Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: SPLM-North – recruitment and use of children (November 2016); JEM – recruitment and use of children (September 2012); SLA/Minnawi – recruitment and use of children (June 2007)
Previous Action Plans: Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) (November 2009) *Signed as an armed group before South Sudan’s independence; Sudan Liberation Army/Free Will (June 2010); Sudan Liberation Army/Abu Gasim (August 2010); Sudan Government security forces, including the Sudanese Armed Forces, the Popular Defense Forces, and the Sudan Police Forces (March 2016) *Delisted in 2018 following compliance with Action Plan.
Sanctions Committee: The Sudan Sanctions Committee (Current Chair: Estonia)
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Sudan: 2020; 2017; 2011; 2009; 2007; 2006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Sudan: 2020; 2017; 2012; 2009; 2008; 2006
UN Mission: UNAMID; UNITAMS
Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict
|Government-allied militia, the South Sudan Unity Movement (SSUM)||a||a|
|Government-supported militias (backed by Government of Sudan)||a,b,c,d|
|Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A)||a||a|
|Sudan People’s Liberation Movement North (SPLM-N) *~||a||a||a||a||a||a|
|Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A)||a|
|Sudan Liberation Army (SLM/A) (Minawi)||a,b,c,e|
|Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Minni Minawi*||a,b,c||a,b||a||a||a||a||a||a||a||a|
|Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Peace Wing||a||a||a||a|
|Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)*~||a||a,b,d||a||a||a||a||a||a||a||a|
|Justice and Equality Movement (Peace Wing)||a,b,c||a||a||a||a|
|Police forces (camel police)||a|
|Police forces, including the Central Reserve Police & Border Intelligence Forces*||a,b,c||a,b,c||a||a||a||a||a||a|
|Sudan Armed Forces (SAF)||a,b,e,f||a,b,c,d,f||a,b,c,d||a|
|Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)||a,b||a,c||a||a||a|
|Joint Integrated Units of the Sudan Armed Forces and SPLA||a|
|The White Army (Lou Nuer)||a,b|
|Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)||a||a||a,b,c||a,b,c|
|Chadian opposition forces||a||a,b,c||a,b||a||a|
|Popular Defense Forces (PDF)*~||a,b,c||a||a||a||a||a||a||a|
|Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abu Gasim/Mother Wing||a,b,c||a||a||a||a||a|
|Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Free Will||a,b,c||a||a||a||a|
|Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abdul Wahid*||a,e||a||a||a||a||a||a||a||a||a|
|Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Shafi||a,e|
|Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Unity||a||a||a||a||a|
|Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Historical Leadership||a||a||a|
|Movement of Popular Force for Rights and Democracy||a||a||a|
|Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF)*~ (including Sudan Police Forces)||a,c||a,c||a||a||a||a||a||a||a|
|South Sudan Defence Forces, including the forces of Major-General Gabriel Tang Ginyi||a,b,c|
|Pibor Defence Forces||a,b,c|
a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children
d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children
~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.