Sudan

Advocacy

SUDAN (Darfur)

Four non-state armed groups are listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s (SG) 2020 annual report on children and armed conflict (CAAC). In May, the SG is expected to report on the implementation of UNITAMS’ mandate, which is up for renewal in June, pursuant to SCR 2524 (2020). Recruitment of UNITAMS’ senior child protection adviser is still pending. According to the SG’s March report (S/2021/191), the UN received reports of the mass recruitment of children in Darfur in late 2020 by armed group signatories to the Juba Agreement. The UN verified the recruitment and use of 10 boys by the Sudan Liberation Movement/Transitional Council, the killing and maiming of five boys by the Rapid Support Forces, and rape of two girls – one of whom was raped by an element of the Sudanese Armed Forces. No efforts toward accountability for these incidents were reported. In April, deadly clashes in West Darfur reportedly left nearly 90 people dead and 190 injured. According to the International Office of Migration (IOM), 237,000 have been displaced by conflict in Darfur in 2021, more than four times the 53,000 displaced in all of 2020. The Security Council should:

  • Renew UNITAMS’ child protection mandate and ensure that adequate resources are allocated and promptly deployed to allow UNITAMS to fully deliver on this mandate, including monitoring and reporting on grave violations, pursuant to SCR 1612 (2005) and subsequent resolutions on CAAC;
  • Call on the Government to accelerate efforts to implement its National Plan on Protection of Civilians, to end impunity for perpetrators of grave violations, and to support comprehensive, gender-sensitive, and age-appropriate response for child survivors;
  • Urge all listed parties who have not already done so to engage with the UN to develop, sign, and implement action plans to end and prevent grave violations, and call on the Government to engage with the UN to develop and implement a national prevention plan on grave violations against children;
  • Call for the protection, rights, well-being, and empowerment of children to be fully incorporated and prioritized in ongoing and future peacebuilding efforts, encourage and facilitate consideration of children’s views in these processes where possible and compatible with their best interests, pursuant to SCR 2427 (2018) and drawing on the Practical Guidance for Mediators;
  • Call on all parties to swiftly and fully implement the recommendations of the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict (SCWG-CAAC) elaborated in its sixth conclusions on children and armed conflict in the Sudan.

The United Kingdom is the lead country on Sudan.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – May 2021.

SUDAN/SOUTH SUDAN (ABYEI) 

The Secretary-General (SG) is expected to report to the Council on the implementation of UNISFA’s mandate no later than April 15 and to report on options for UNISFA drawdown and exit by March 31, pursuant to SCR 2550 (2020). UNISFA’s current mandate is set to expire on May 15. In his October report (S/2020/1019), the SG notes that the general security situation in Abyei remains tense, and describes the abduction of two children and death of a four-year-old child as a result of intercommunal violence in April. The report also states that “protection, in particular of children and against gender-based violence, remained the key challenge because of the limited resources available.” The Security Council should:

  • Strongly condemn all grave violations against children, call for perpetrators to be held accountable, and urge all parties to uphold their obligations under international humanitarian law (IHL) and human rights law (IHRL);
  • Renew its call to sustain adequate child protection expertise in UNISFA, including throughout the transition phase, and ensure dedicated capacity and access to monitor and report on child rights violations in Abyei;
  • Call for the protection, rights, well-being, and empowerment of children to be fully incorporated and prioritized in ongoing and future efforts to build and sustain peace at the community leveldrawing on the Practical Guidance for Mediators; and encourage and facilitate consideration of children’s views in these processes where possible and compatible with the child’s best interests;
  • Ensure that child protection is appropriately considered and prioritized in UNISFA’s drawdown and exit strategy, including monitoring and reporting on grave violations committed against children in Abyei, building on lessons learned, and consulting with the relevant child protection experts.

The United States is the lead country on Sudan/South Sudan (Abyei).

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update – April 2021.

Publications

UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: SPLM-North – recruitment and use of children (November 2016); JEM – recruitment and use of children (September 2012); SLA/Minnawi – recruitment and use of children (June 2007)
Previous Action Plans: Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) (November 2009) *Signed as an armed group before South Sudan’s independence; Sudan Liberation Army/Free Will (June 2010); Sudan Liberation Army/Abu Gasim (August 2010); Sudan Government security forces, including the Sudanese Armed Forces, the Popular Defense Forces, and the Sudan Police Forces (March 2016) *Delisted in 2018 following compliance with Action Plan. 
Sanctions Committee: The Sudan Sanctions Committee (Current Chair: Estonia) 
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Sudan: 2020; 2017; 2011200920072006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Sudan: 20202017; 2012200920082006
UN Mission: UNAMID; UNITAMS

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Government-allied militia, the South Sudan Unity Movement (SSUM) a a
Government-supported militias (backed by Government of Sudan) a,b,c,d
Pro-Government militias* a a a a a a a a
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) a a
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement North (SPLM-N) *~ a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLM/A) (Minawi) a,b,c,e
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Minni Minawi* a,b,c a,b a a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Peace Wing a a a a
Janjaweed a,b,c,e a,b,c,e a,b,c,d,f
Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)*~ a a,b,d a a a a a a a a
Justice and Equality Movement (Peace Wing) a,b,c a a a a
Police forces (camel police) a
Police forces, including the Central Reserve Police & Border Intelligence Forces* a,b,c a,b,c a a a a a a
Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) a,b,e,f a,b,c,d,f a,b,c,d a
Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) a,b a,c a a a
Joint Integrated Units of the Sudan Armed Forces and SPLA a
The White Army (Lou Nuer) a,b
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) a a a,b,c a,b,c
Chadian opposition forces a a,b,c a,b a a
Popular Defense Forces (PDF)*~ a,b,c a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abu Gasim/Mother Wing a,b,c a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Free Will a,b,c a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Abdul Wahid* a,e a a a a a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Shafi a,e
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Unity a a a a a
Sudan Liberation Army (SLA)/Historical Leadership a a a
Movement of Popular Force for Rights and Democracy a a a
Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF)*~ (including Sudan Police Forces) a,c a,c a a a a a a a
South Sudan Defence Forces, including the forces of Major-General Gabriel Tang Ginyi a,b,c
Pibor Defence Forces a,b,c

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.

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