D. R. Congo


Twelve parties were listed for grave violations against children in 2016, including the DRC armed forces (FARDC). The Government signed an action plan in 2012 to end and prevent recruitment and use of children and sexual violence by the FARDC. In August, the Group of Experts’ mandate expires and pursuant to SCR 2293 (2016), the Secretary-General (SG) will take all necessary administrative measures to re-establish the Group in consultation with the 1533 Sanctions Committee. The ongoing crisis in the Kasai region has put 7 million children at risk of violence; thousands of children have been displaced and separated, are witnessing atrocities, and are directly targeted by all parties to the conflict. Furthermore, in late June 2017, fighting erupted in South Kivu Province between the FARDC and the Coalition nationale du peuple pour la souveraineté du Congo (CNPSC), a newly formed alliance of Mayi-Mayi militia groups. According to OCHA, approximately 80,000 civilians were displaced as a result, and activity by armed non-State actors in Uvira Territory in early July restricted humanitarian actors’ movements. The Security Council should:

  • Urge all parties to immediately cease violations and abuses of children’s rights in the Kasai region, including an immediate stop of the recruitment and use of children;
  • Condemn the use of children as human shields by the Kamuina Nsapu militia and the high number of children killed or maimed in military operations against the militia;
  • Encourage the Government to treat children allegedly associated with the militia as victims in line with their commitments under the Paris Principles and to swiftly hand them over to child protection actors; further encourage the Government to establish a child disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) program and to ensure accountability for child rights violations;
  • Call on parties to the conflict to facilitate full and unconditional access to humanitarian aid workers in all areas of the Greater Kasai;
  • Urge all parties to immediately cease attacks on health centers and schools, as well as military use of schools in line with the Safe Schools Declaration which the Government endorsed in July 2016;
  • Urge the Government to accelerate the implementation of the action plan to prevent and end the recruitment of children and sexual violence against children, including by preventing the use of girls for sexual purposes by members of the FARDC, and by implementing the Special Operating Procedures on age assessment validated in April 2016; encourage MONUSCO to continue supporting the Government in these efforts;
  • Urge the Government to prioritize criminal investigations and prosecutions of individuals suspected of recruiting children and/or using them in hostilities, including for sexual and domestic purposes.

France is the lead country on the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Egypt chairs the 1533 Sanctions Committee.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update: August 2017.


In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Watchlist’s Partnerships Program supports one local civil society organization to strengthen its capacity to monitor, report, and respond to grave violations against children. Local partners play an instrumental role in mobilizing and training community-based protection structures to alert in case of grave violations. They also engage with local authorities to improve access to referral services and to prevent violations.


UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: FARDC (the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo) – recruitment and use of children and sexual violence against children (October 2012)
Sanctions Committee: Sanctions Committee concerning Democratic Republic of Congo
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in DRC: 20142010; 2008; 2007; 2006
Security Council Working Group conclusions on DRC: 20142011200920072006

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo a
Forces armees congolaises (FAC) a
Forces armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo (FARDC)~* a a,b,c,e a,b,c,e a,c,d,f a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c
Mouvement national de liberation du Congo (MLC) a a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Goma a a
Local defence forces associated with RCD-Goma a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-National a a
Rassemblement congolais pour la democratie (RCD)-Kisangani/ML a a
Union des patriotes congolais (UPC) (Hema militia) a a
Union des patriotes congolais (UPC)-Thomas Lubanga and Florimert Kisembo factions a
Parti pour l’unite et la sauvenarge du Congo (PUSIC) (Hema Militias) a a
Masunzu’s forces a a
Lendu militias a
Front nationaliste et integrationaliste (FNI) (Lendu) a a,b a a,e a a,c a,c
Front populaire pour la reconciliation de l’Ituri (FPRI) (Ngiti) a
Ex-FAR/Interahamwe a a
Mai-Mai a a
Mai-Mai in the Kivus, Maniema and Katanga a,b
Mai-Mai groups in North and South Kivu, Maniema and Katanga who have not integrated into FARDC a a,e
Mai-Mai “Lafontaine”/Union des Patriotes Congolais pour la Paix (UPCP) a,d,f a,c a,c a,c a a a a
Mai Mai Alliance des patriotes pour un Congo libre et souverain (APCLS) “Colonel Janvier” a a a a
Mayi Mayi Simba c a,c a,c a,c
Mai Mai “Tawimbi” a
Forces armes populaires congolaises (FAPC) a a,b
Mudundu-40 a a
Laurent Nkunda and Jules Mutebutsi, dissident elements of FARDC a,c
Non-integrated FARDC elements loyal to rebel leader Laurent Nkunda a,e a,b,c,e
Force democratique de liberation du Rwanda (FDLR)* a,b,c a,e a,b,c,e a a,c a,c a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d
Front de resistance patriotique en Ituri (FRPI)*/Front Populaire pour la Justice au Congo (FPJC)) a,e a,c a,c a,c a,c a,c,d a,c,d a,c,d
Mouvement revolutionnaire congolais (MRC) a,e
Congres national pour la defense du peuple (CNDP), formerly led by Laurent Nkunda and now Bosco Ntaganda a,b,d a,c a,c a,c
Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)* a,b,c,e a,c a,c a,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c a,b,c,e
Mouvement du 23 Mars (M23) a,c a,c
Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) a,d a,b,d a,b,d
Mayi Mayi Kata Katanga a a a
Nduma Defense Coalition (NDC)/Cheka a,b a,b a,b
Mayi Mayi Nyatura a a a
Rayia Mutomboki a,c

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.