These attacks and threats can be motivated by conservative ideological reasons (e.g. attacks against girl students by extremist groups in Afghanistan) or to pressure people to join combats (e.g. Somalia). Such attacks and threats have taken place in particular in school grounds, but also on roads leading to schools. Other situations of concern include forceful collection of illegal taxes on teachers (e.g. Nepal), abduction of teachers motivated by a perception that they work as informants (e.g. Colombia) and abductions of teachers and students to secure ransoms from families. These actions not only disrupt educational activities (lack of teachers), but also create a climate of fear that leads many families to pull their children out of school.