In July 2005, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) unanimously adopted Security Council Resolution (SCR) 1612. In addition to calling for other important measures to protect children, the Security Council broke new ground in requesting that the Secretary-General establish a mechanism to monitor and report on violations of children’s rights in situations of armed conflict. The implementation of the UN-led Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM) is an important step in improving the protection of children affected by armed conflict. However, some challenges remain. In an effort to address these challenges, the Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict undertook a global study on monitoring and reporting and the implementation of the MRM between July and December 2007. This study documents and analyzes lessons learned, challenges, and successes in monitoring and reporting and provides practicable and action-oriented recommendations to key stakeholders and decision-makers to advance and improve monitoring and reporting on children’s rights.