(HRW) – Dear NATO Heads of State, The 2016 NATO Summit, to be held in Warsaw on July 8-9, 2016, is meant to reaffirm NATO’s continuing commitment to Afghanistan at a time when the Afghan government is under growing pressure not only from Taliban insurgents, but also from groups claiming affiliation with the Islamic State. Since the withdrawal of most international forces at the end of 2014, the conflict between the Afghan government and these insurgents has escalated, straining the capacities of the Afghanistan National Security Forces (ANSF), and taking a higher toll on civilians. The UN Assistance Mission to Afghanistan (UNAMA) has documented a steady rise in civilian casualties since 2009, with each year setting a new record of civilian loss of life. In the first three months of 2016, one-third of civilian casualties were children.