Somali National Army (SNA) and Al-Shabaab are both listed for the recruitment and use and killing and maiming of children. Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah (ASWJ) is also listed for recruitment and use. In 2012, the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) signed two action plans with the UN, one to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children by the SNA, and one to end killing and maiming. In January, the SG’s progress report on UNSOM is due per SCR 2275 (2016). The last report (S/2016/763, para 55) notes that 66 children were detained in Puntland for their association with Al-Shabaab, 12 of whom were issued death sentences. In meetings with regional authorities during her visit to Puntland in July 2016, the Special Representative to the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict expressed deep alarm that children faced the death penalty, and that others continued to be held in detention for their association with Al-Shabaab. Council Members should:

  • Stress that federal and regional authorities must swiftly resolve existing legal ambiguities related to the age of majority and should domesticate Somalia’s international obligations under the Convention on the Rights of the Child;
  • Stress to the TFG and regional authorities that children captured for their alleged association with armed groups should be treated primarily as victims and handed over to child protection actors in accordance with the SOPs signed in 2014; and furthermore, encourage UNSOM to support the TFG on the implementation of the SOPs, with support from other child protection actors;
  • Express concern about the lack of transparency and oversight in the classification of children held on national security charges, the plight of children classified as high risk, the absence of a clear legal framework for children detained on security charges, and of international juvenile justice standards;
  • Maintain the promotion of child protection as one of UNSOM’s key priorities, and to that end, continue to ask for the deployment of CPAs, ensure that all mandatory pre-deployment training on child protection is undertaken, and call upon UNSOM to continue to coordinate with AMISOM’s Child Protection Adviser appointed in January 2015

The United Kingdom is the lead country on Somalia. Kazakhstan chairs the 751/1907 Somalia/Eritrea committee.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update: January 2017.

UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans Signed: Transitional Federal Government (July 2012); The Somali National Armed Forces has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005)
Sanctions Committee: The Sanctions Committee on Somalia established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) was first created on 24 April 1992 to oversee the general and complete arms embargo imposed by Security Council resolution 733 (1992) and to undertake the tasks set out by the Security Council in paragraph 11 of resolution 751 (1992) and, subsequently, in paragraph 4 of resolution 1356 (2001) and paragraph 11 of resolution 1844 (2008).
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Somalia: 2016201020082007
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Somalia: 201120082007

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Transitional National Government a
Juba Valley Alliance a a
Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA) a a, b
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA/SNSC) of Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade a
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA)-faction of Muse Sudi Yalahow) a
Middle Shabelle Administration a, b
Puntland Administration a, b
Somali Patriotic Movement/Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a, b
United Somali Congress (USC) of Mohamed Kanyare Afrah a, c
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA) of Omar a, c
Lower Shabelle Administration a
Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter Terrorism (ARPCT) a, b, d
Union of the Islamic Courts (ICU) a, b
Remnants of the former Union of the Islamic Courts (UIC) a, b a, b, d
Transitional Federal Government (TFG) a, b, c, d, f a, b, d a, b a, b a, b
Al-Shabaab* a, b, d a, b a, b a, b a, b a,b a,b a,b,e
Hizbul Islam a a, b
Somali National Army (SNA) (Formerly listed as Somali National Armed Forces)~* a, b a,b a,b a,b
Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah (ASWJ) a a a,b

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.