Somali National Army (SNA) and Al-Shabaab are both listed for the recruitment and use and killing and maiming of children, and Al-Shabaab is additionally listed for abduction. Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah (ASWJ) is also listed for recruitment and use. In 2012, the Federal Government signed two action plans with the UN, one to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children by the SNA, and one to end killing and maiming. The SG will report on UNSOM’s progress in September pursuant to SCR 2358 (2017). In his latest report (S/2017/408, para. 66) covering the first quarter of 2017, the SG noted that on January 26, a Boosaaso military court reversed the death sentences of 10 children for their alleged association with Al-Shabaab but then issued 20-year prison terms instead. Al-Shabaab continues to abduct and recruit children in large numbers. Council Members should:

  • Welcome the issuance in August 2017 of the command order prohibiting and sanctioning the recruitment and use of children and other violations and abuses against children and encourage its dissemination and implementation;
  • Welcome Puntland authorities’ reversal of death sentences for the 10 children detained for alleged association with Al-Shabaab, urging authorities to further revoke the children’s heavy prison sentences that violate their obligations under international law;
  • Urge the Government to swiftly resolve existing legal ambiguities related to the age of majority and domesticate Somalia’s international obligations under the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC);
  • Underline importance of using the constitutional review process that has just started to maintain and strengthen existing child protection provisions and raise issues around the CRC domestication.

The United Kingdom is the lead country on Somalia. Kazakhstan chairs the 751/1907 Somalia/Eritrea committee.

This information is based on Watchlist’s Children and Armed Conflict Monthly Update: September 2017.

UN Action

Year listed: 2003
Action Plans signed: Somali National Army – recruitment and use of children (July 2012)
Sanctions Committee: The Sanctions Committee on Somalia
Secretary-General’s reports on CAAC in Somalia: 2016201020082007
Security Council Working Group conclusions on Somalia2017201120082007

Perpetrators listed in the annexes of the Secretary-General’s annual reports on children and armed conflict

2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Transitional National Government a
Juba Valley Alliance a a
Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA) a a, b
Rahanwein Resistance Army (RRA/SNSC) of Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade a
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA)-faction of Muse Sudi Yalahow) a
Middle Shabelle Administration a, b
Puntland Administration a, b
Somali Patriotic Movement/Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council a, b
United Somali Congress (USC) of Mohamed Kanyare Afrah a, c
United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA) of Omar a, c
Lower Shabelle Administration a
Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter Terrorism (ARPCT) a, b, d
Union of the Islamic Courts (ICU) a, b
Remnants of the former Union of the Islamic Courts (UIC) a, b a, b, d
Transitional Federal Government (TFG) a, b, c, d, f a, b, d a, b a, b a, b
Al-Shabaab* a, b, d a, b a, b a, b a, b a,b a,b a,b,e
Hizbul Islam a a, b
Somali National Army (SNA) (Formerly listed as Somali National Armed Forces)~* a, b a,b a,b a,b
Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah (ASWJ) a a a,b

a: Parties that recruit and use children
b: Parties that kill and maim children
c: Parties that commit rape and other forms of sexual violence against children

d: Parties that engage in attacks on schools and/or hospitals
e: Parties that engage in abduction of children
f: Parties that deny humanitarian access to children

~ This party has concluded an action plan with the United Nations in line with Security Council resolutions 1539 (2004) and 1612 (2005).
* This party has been in the annexes for at least five years and is therefore considered a persistent perpetrator.